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Sir Christopher Howard Andrewes (1896–1988) by Walter Stoneman, 1939 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Andrewes, Sir Christopher Howard (1896–1988), virologist, was born on 7 June 1896 in London, the elder child and only son of Sir Frederick William Andrewes (1859–1932), pathologist, and his wife, Phyllis Mary, daughter of John Hamer, publisher. He was educated as a day boy at ...

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Billingham, Rupert Everett [Bill] (1921–2002), immunologist, was born on 15 October 1921 at 95 Portway, Warminster, Wiltshire, the only child of Albert Everett Billingham (1889–1977) and his wife, Helen Louise (1888–1978), daughter of Herbert Green. His father's family originated in the industrial Black Country...

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Burnet, Sir Frank Macfarlane (1899–1985), virologist and immunologist, was born on 3 September 1899 in Traralgon, Gippsland, Victoria, Australia, the second of seven children of Frank Burnet (b. 1856), a banker of Scottish descent, and Hadassah Pollock Mackay (b. 1872), the daughter of a schoolteacher who had also emigrated from ...

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Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet (1899–1985) by Walter Bird, 1958 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Sir (William) Richard Shaboe Doll (1912–2005) by Michael Crabtree, 2004 © Troika Photos

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Doll, Sir (William) Richard Shaboe (1912–2005), physician and epidemiologist, was born at 15 Park Road, Hampton Hill, Middlesex, on 28 October 1912, the elder son of Henry William Doll, physician and surgeon, and his wife, Amy Kathleen, née Shaboe, concert pianist. He was educated at ...

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Alexander Haddow

revised by G. C. Cook

Kennaway, Sir Ernest Laurence (1881–1958), pathologist, was born at 16 Velwell Villas, Exeter, on 23 May 1881, the youngest of five children of Laurence James Kennaway, a colonial farmer, and his wife, Mary Louisa Galton. His grandfather, who was twice mayor of Exeter...

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Sir Ernest Laurence Kennaway (1881–1958) by Walter Stoneman, 1947 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Kermack, William Ogilvy (1898–1970), biochemist and mathematical epidemiologist, was born on 26 April 1898 at Kirriemuir, Forfarshire, the only son of William Kermack, postman, and his wife, Helen, née Ogilvy (d. 1904). After his mother's death he was mainly brought up by his father's sister. At five he was sent to a local school, ...

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Milstein, César (1927–2002), molecular biologist and immunologist, was born on 8 October 1927 in Bahía Blanca, a provincial town in Argentina, the second of three sons of Lázaro Milstein, a salesman who had travelled to Argentina at the age of fourteen as a Jewish immigrant from the ...

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César Milstein (1927–2002) by Nick Sinclair, 1993 © Nick Sinclair; photograph National Portrait Gallery, London

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Sheehan, Harold Leeming (1900–1988), pathologist, was born on 4 August 1900 in Carlisle, Cumberland, the second of six sons and second of thirteen children of Patrick Sheehan, general medical practitioner, and his wife, Eliza, daughter of Francis Leeming, a businessman in the cotton trade. He was educated at ...

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Dame Janet Maria Vaughan (1899–1993) by Elliott & Fry, 1945 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Vaughan [married name Gourlay], Dame Janet Maria (1899–1993), haematologist and radiobiologist, was born on 18 October 1899 at 4 Albert Road, Clifton, Bristol, the eldest of the four children of William Wyamar Vaughan (1865–1938), schoolmaster, and his first wife, Margaret, née Symonds (1869–1925)...