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Bain, Alexander (1818–1903), psychologist, was born on 11 June 1818, the second child of eight of George Bain, an impoverished Calvinist weaver of Aberdeen, and his wife, Margaret Paul. Bain left school at the age of eleven but, via evening classes at the mechanics' institute and adolescent autodidactic labours, he gained entrance to ...

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Alexander Bain (1818–1903) by Macmahon, 1892 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Broadbent, Donald Eric (1926–1993), psychologist, was born on 6 May 1926 at 361 Station Road, Yardley, Birmingham, the youngest of the three children of Herbert Arthur Broadbent (b. c.1890), accountant, and his wife, Hannah Elizabeth (Margie) Williams (1893–1965), a secretary before her marriage. Although born in ...

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Donald Eric Broadbent (1926–1993) by unknown photographer © Margaret Broadbent

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Chesser, Eustace [formerly Isaac Chesarkie] (1902–1973), psychiatrist and social reformer, was born on 22 March 1902 at 3 Dalkeith Road, Edinburgh, second son of Arthur Chesarkie, a jeweller, and his wife, Rebecca Solomon, whose families had fled Russian pogroms. He was educated at ...

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Craik, Kenneth James William (1914–1945), psychologist, was born on 29 March 1914 at 10 Trinity Road, Leith, Scotland, the son of James Bowstead Craik, writer to the signet, and his wife, Marie Sylvia, née Robson. Having studied psychology under James Drever sen. (and philosophy under ...

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Eder, (Montague) David (1865–1936), psychoanalyst, was born on 12 August 1865 at 19 Euston Square, London, the eldest of the four children of David Martin Eder, shipping merchant, and his second wife, Esther Burnstein, formerly Soloman. His parents were both Jewish. Eder was educated in ...

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Eysenck, Hans Jurgen (1916–1997), psychologist, only child of Anton Eduard Eysenck (b. 1889) of Borgisch-Gladebach in Germany and Ruth, née Werner, of Königshütte in Silesia, was born in Berlin on 4 March 1916 and reared by his Roman Catholic maternal grandmother, A. Werner...

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Hans Jurgen Eysenck (1916–1997) by Anne-Katrin Purkiss, 1991 [right, with his son, Michael William Eysenck] © Anne-Katrin Purkiss; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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Freud, Sigmund (1856–1939), founder of psychoanalysis, was born on 6 May 1856 at Freiberg, Moravia, in the Austro-Hungarian empire (later Príbor, Czech republic), the first of the seven surviving children of Jacob Freud (1815–1896), wool trader, and his second wife, Amalie (1835–1931)...

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Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) by Max Halberstadt, 1921 Mary Evans Picture Library / Freud copyrights

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George Gibson (1885–1953) by Bassano © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Gibson, George (1885–1953), trade unionist and mental health worker, was born at 98 Cumberland Street, Glasgow, on 3 April 1885, the third son and seventh of the eleven children of Johnston Robertson Gibson (b. 1847), outdoor labourer, oil merchant, and tobacconist, and his wife, ...

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Glover, Edward George (1888–1972), psychoanalyst, was born on 13 January 1888 at Lesmahagow, Lanarkshire, the third son of Matthew Glover, a country schoolmaster, and Elizabeth Smith Shanks, who was of a farming family. His eldest brother, James, who died early, in 1927, was regarded as the genius of the family, taking after his father, whereas ...

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Gregory, William (1803–1858), chemist and psychic investigator, was born at St Andrew's Square, Edinburgh, on 25 December 1803, the fourth son of James Gregory (1753–1821), professor of medicine in the University of Edinburgh, and his second wife, Miss McLeod. He was descended from a long line of 'academic ...

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Susan Sutherland Isaacs (1885–1948) by Enoch Fairhurst, 1935 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Isaacs [née Fairhurst], Susan Sutherland (1885–1948), educational psychologist and psychoanalyst, was born on 24 May 1885, at 32 Bradshaw Brow, Turton, Bolton, Lancashire, the seventh of eight children of William Fairhurst, journalist and Methodist lay preacher, and his wife, Miriam Sutherland. Fairhurst's...

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Jones, (Alfred) Ernest (1879–1958), neurologist and psychoanalyst, was born on 1 January 1879 at Ffos-felin (renamed Gowerton), near Swansea, Glamorgan, the son of Thomas Jones (1853–1922), then a colliery manager and later a colliery proprietor, and his wife, Mary Ann Lewis (1855–1909)...

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(Alfred) Ernest Jones (1879–1958) by James Russell & Sons courtesy of the British Psychoanalytical Society

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Knight [née Horsey], Margaret Kennedy (1903–1983), humanist writer and psychologist, was born at Waltham College, Cheshunt, Hertfordshire, on 23 November 1903, the daughter of Ernest Percival Horsey (1868–1960), schoolmaster, and his wife, Kate Marion, née Edwards (1871–1943). Raised in Harlow College, Essex...