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Abercromby, David (d. 1701?), physician and philosopher, most probably belonged to the Abercrombys of Seaton in the north-east of Scotland where he is believed to have been born. It is not known if Abercromby married or had children, although what survives of his biography makes marriage unlikely. Nothing is known of his parentage....

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John Case (1540/41?41–1600) by unknown artist The President and Fellows of St John's College, Oxford

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Case, John (1540/41?–1600), philosopher and physician, was born at Woodstock, Oxfordshire. He may have received his grammar-school education in Woodstock, where there was certainly a school before 1571. After spending some time as a chorister at New College and Christ Church, he transferred to ...

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J. M. Rigg

revised by Sarah Bakewell

Duncan, Mark (d. 1640), physician and philosopher, was probably born in London to Thomas Duncan of Maxpoffle, Roxburghshire, and Janet, daughter of Patrick Oliphant of Sowdoun in the same county. He appears to have been educated partly in Scotland and partly on the continent. He took the degree of MD, but at what university is not known....

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David Hartley (bap. 1705, d. 1757) by James Heath, pubd 1809 (after John Shackleton) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Hartley, David (bap. 1705, d. 1757), philosopher and physician, was baptized on 21 June 1705 at St John's, Halifax, Yorkshire. His father was David Hartley (1674–1720), BA 1695, Lincoln College, Oxford, a clergyman who served at Luddenden (1698–1705); Illingworth, Halifax (1705–17); and Armley, Leeds...

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Jack [Jacchaeus], Gilbert (bap. 1577, d. 1628), philosopher and physician, baptized in Aberdeen on 23 May 1577, was the son of Isabel Cargill and Andrew Jack, a merchant who died when Gilbert was still young. His mother then entrusted his upbringing to Thomas Cargill...