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Albright, Arthur (1811–1900), chemist and phosphorus manufacturer, was born on 3 March 1811 in Charlbury, Oxfordshire, into a Quaker family, the second son and sixth of ten children of William Albright, grocer and mercer of Charlbury, and his wife, Rachel Tanner of Woodborough, Somerset...

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Allhusen, Christian Augustus Henry (1806–1890), chemical manufacturer, was born on 2 December 1806 in Kiel, Germany, the fourth son in the family of five sons and two daughters of Carl Christian Allhusen, merchant of Kiel, and his wife, Anna Margaretha Schroder. The French occupation of ...

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Anderson, Patrick (1579/80–c. 1660), physician and manufacturer of patent medicines, was born in Scotland. By 1618, when his first work appeared, he was already an established physician in Edinburgh; the book, about the cold spring of Kinghorn Craig in the Firth of Forth...

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Ascough, Jesse (1823–1897), borax manufacturer, was born on 6 March 1823 in Coventry, the only son and fifth child of Jesse Ascough (1780–1857), ribbon manufacturer, and his wife, Sarah. He had qualified as a master chemist by the time he married Maria Agnes Fellows (1823–1897)...

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Bader, Ernest (1890–1982), chemical manufacturer and industrial reformer, was born in Regensdorf, Switzerland, on 24 November 1890, the youngest of thirteen children of a protestant farmer, Gottlieb Bader, and his wife, Barbara Meier. He was expelled from school at the age of twelve and went to work as a menial in a ...

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Baker, William Garrard (bap. 1815, d. 1902), manufacturing chemist, baptized at Chelmsford, Essex, was the eldest of five sons (there were also two daughters) of William Baker, a chemist and druggist in Chelmsford. Baker's early life and education remain obscure and it seems likely that he was educated locally before being, as he himself recalled, apprenticed to his father. When he was qualified, he went to ...

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Barratt, Thomas James (1841–1914), soap manufacturer and pioneer of advertising, was born on 16 May 1841 at 25 Tottenham Place, St Pancras, London, the son of Thomas Barratt, a piano maker, and his wife, Emma Price. He was educated at a private day school, and at fifteen was apprenticed to a firm of ...

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Battley, Richard (bap. 1772, d. 1856), apothecary and manufacturing chemist, was baptized on 26 September 1772 at Wakefield, Yorkshire, the second son of John Battley, an architect of local repute, and his wife, Ruth Gledhill. After attending Wakefield grammar school, he was privately trained for medicine by a doctor in the town. He then moved to ...

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Beecham, Sir Joseph, first baronet (1848–1916), manufacturer of patent medicines, was born at Wigan on 8 June 1848. He was the eldest of the family of two sons and two daughters of Thomas Beecham (1820–1907), founder of Beecham's pills, and his first wife, ...

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Beecham, Thomas (1820–1907), manufacturer of patent medicines, was born at Curbridge, Oxfordshire, on 3 December 1820, the eldest of three sons and four daughters of Joseph Beecham, an agricultural labourer, and his wife, Sarah, daughter of James Hunt. He received a year's schooling before becoming a shepherd's boy at the age of eight. For the next twelve years as a shepherd, he educated himself and acquired herbal lore. From 1840 onwards he undertook casual work at ...

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C. H. Desch

revised by John Bosnell

Beilby, Sir George Thomas (1850–1924), industrial chemist, was born in Edinburgh on 17 November 1850, the youngest son of George Thomas Beilby MD and his wife, Rachel, daughter of the Revd Jonathan Watson, minister of Dublin Street Baptist Church, Edinburgh. He was educated at private schools and at ...

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Bibby, Joseph (1851–1940), animal feed and soap manufacturer, was born on 12 January 1851 at Conder Mill, Vale of Conder, Lancashire, the second of the three sons of James Bibby, farmer and miller, and his wife, Amelia Barnett. He attended an elementary school until 1861 and the ...

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Bide, Sir Austin Ernest (1915–2008), chemist and industrialist, was born at 3 Blithfield Street, Kensington, London, on 11 September 1915, the son of Ernest Arthur Bide (1886/7–1918) and his wife, Eliza, née Young (1884–1976). He was brought up by his mother after his father, a gardener who had become a lance bombardier in the ...

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Jesse Boot, first Baron Trent (1850–1931) by unknown artist © reserved / The Boots Company plc

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Boot, Jesse, first Baron Trent (1850–1931), retail and manufacturing chemist, was born in Nottingham on 2 June 1850, the only son of John Boot (1815–1860), a medical herbalist newly arrived from the country, and his second wife, Mary, daughter of Benjamin Wills of ...

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Boot, John Campbell, second Baron Trent (1889–1956), retail and manufacturing chemist, was born on 19 January 1889 in Nottingham, the only son of Jesse Boot (1850–1931), the founder of Boots retail chain and manufacturing chemists. His mother, Florence Annie Boot, née Rowe (1863–1952)...

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Briggs, William (1839–1919), chemical manufacturer, was born at East Retford, Nottinghamshire, on 25 March 1839, the eldest son of William Briggs, stage-coach proprietor, and his wife, Jemima, née Bennett. He attended the King Edward VI Grammar School in Retford, then, aged fifteen, went to ...

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Brock, John (1834–1916), chemical manufacturer, was born on 25 August 1834 in Manchester, the younger of two children of William Brock of Nantwich, Cheshire. He was educated privately and later sent to Chorlton Hall School. Brock's career started with Crosfield and Shanks, chemical manufacturers, in ...

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Edward Allen Brotherton, Baron Brotherton (1856–1930) by Sir Benjamin Stone, 1902 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Brotherton, Edward Allen, Baron Brotherton (1856–1930), chemical manufacturer and philanthropist, was born on 1 April 1856 at 2 Tiverton Place, Ardwick Green, Manchester, the eldest of three children of Theophilus Brotherton, a yarn agent, and his wife, Sarah, née O'Donnell. His relatives included the educational reformer ...