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Alsop [Alsopp], Thomas (d. 1558), apothecary, is thought to have been connected with the Alsop family of Alsop (now Alsop-en-le-Dale) chapelry in Ashbourne, Derbyshire, but his parentage remains unknown; and, although Alsops from Alsop were living in London during the sixteenth century, no link with ...

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Anderson, Patrick (1579/80–c. 1660), physician and manufacturer of patent medicines, was born in Scotland. By 1618, when his first work appeared, he was already an established physician in Edinburgh; the book, about the cold spring of Kinghorn Craig in the Firth of Forth...

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Baker, Robert (1803–1880), surgeon and factory inspector, was born on 15 August 1803 in York, the second son of John Baker, druggist, of High Ousegate, York, and his wife, Hannah. His career shows many parallels with that of the better-known Charles Turner Thackrah...

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Battley, Richard (bap. 1772, d. 1856), apothecary and manufacturing chemist, was baptized on 26 September 1772 at Wakefield, Yorkshire, the second son of John Battley, an architect of local repute, and his wife, Ruth Gledhill. After attending Wakefield grammar school, he was privately trained for medicine by a doctor in the town. He then moved to ...

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Beecham, Thomas (1820–1907), manufacturer of patent medicines, was born at Curbridge, Oxfordshire, on 3 December 1820, the eldest of three sons and four daughters of Joseph Beecham, an agricultural labourer, and his wife, Sarah, daughter of James Hunt. He received a year's schooling before becoming a shepherd's boy at the age of eight. For the next twelve years as a shepherd, he educated himself and acquired herbal lore. From 1840 onwards he undertook casual work at ...

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Bevan, Silvanus (1691–1765), apothecary, was born in Swansea on 28 October 1691, the second son of Silvanus Bevan (1661–1727) and his wife, Jane, née Phillips. The descendant of influential and prosperous Welsh Quakers (his grandfather had been a Swansea alderman and a merchant), ...

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Blackrie, Alexander (bap. 1702, d. 1772), surgeon-apothecary, was baptized on 14 June 1702 at the church of St Nicholas, Aberdeen, the seventh of the eleven children of William Blackrie and his wife, Isobel, née Fordyce. A merchant's son, he was educated at the grammar school and ...

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Blackstone, John (1712–1753), apothecary and botanist, was born at Harefield, Middlesex, the eldest of three sons of Edward Blackstone (d. 1730), ironmonger and citizen of London, and his wife, Sarah, daughter of Francis Ashby of Brakspeare, Harefield. In 1729 he was apprenticed to ...

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Bloomsbury Circle (act. c. 1904–c. 1940), was a group of writers, artists, and thinkers who gathered in Bloomsbury and Sussex in the early decades of the twentieth century, and who exerted considerable influence in a variety of fields between the two world wars. They became publicly known as the ...

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Bowker, Agnes (b. 1541/2), servant and alleged mother of a cat, was the daughter of Henry Bowker, a yeoman or butcher of Market Harborough, Leicestershire, and suffered from fits of 'the falling sickness' or epilepsy. Although she described being once sent to live in ...

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Bracken, Henry (bap. 1697, d. 1764), writer on farriery and surgeon, was baptized on 31 October 1697 at St Mary, Lancaster, the son of Henry Bracken, a local innkeeper who held a number of minor offices with the Lancaster corporation. After a grammar-school education at ...

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Browne, John Collis (1819–1884), physician and manufacturer of patent medicine, was born on 18 June 1819 at Maidstone in Kent, and baptized at the church of All Saints with St Philip in that town. His parents were Captain William Browne of the 13th light dragoons...

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Browning [née Chadwick], Ethel (1891–1969), toxicologist and factory inspector, was born on 16 March 1891 at 36 Audlam Street, Bury, Lancashire, the daughter of James William Chadwick, cotton spinner, later a gentleman (1916), and sometime managing director of a soap factory, and his wife, ...

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Caplin, Roxey Ann [formerly Emily Roxey Caplin] (1793–1888), corset maker, writer, and lecturer on health, was born in Canada, the daughter of English settlers; Canadian Indians taught her canoeing and swimming as a child. Probably trained as a milliner, she married about 1835, and by 1839 was living in ...

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G. T. Bettany

revised by T. A. B. Corley

Chandler, John (1699/1700–1780), apothecary, was born at Bath, the grandson of a tradesman in Taunton and the younger son—there was at least one daughter, the poet Mary Chandler (1687–1745)—of Henry Chandler (d. 1717), a dissenting minister, and his wife, formerly Miss Bridgman...

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Channing, John (c. 1703–1775), apothecary and Arabist, was born in London, the first child of John Channing (d. 1725), a London apothecary, and his first wife, Elizabeth (d. 1705), daughter of Robert Erle of Sturminster Marshall, Dorset. Channing was apprenticed to his father on 5 August 1718, and was made a freeman of the ...

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Clater, Francis (bap. 1754?, d. 1823), farrier and veterinary writer, may have been the son of John and Mary Claytor who was baptized at St Peter's, Nottingham, on 14 April 1754. He described himself in the preface to his first work as 'having served a regular apprenticeship and nearly one year a journeyman to the late ...

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Clay, Trevor (1936–1994), nurse and trade unionist, was born on 10 May 1936 at 47 Deacon Street, Chilvers Coton, Nuneaton, the eldest of the six children of Joseph Reginald George Clay (1901–1971), a wheelwright at Dunlop, and his wife, Florence Emma (1903–1991), née...

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Gordon Goodwin

revised by Linda Warden

Clover, Joseph (1725–1811), veterinary surgeon and farrier, son of a blacksmith, was born in Norwich on 12 August 1725. He benefited from some early schooling and learned his trade working alongside his father. When he was seventeen his father died and Joseph took over the family business, providing support for his mother and three siblings. About 1750 he attracted the notice of ...

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See Cockle, Sir James