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Aves, Ernest Harry (1857–1917), social investigator and civil servant, was born on 30 August 1857 at Cleveland Villa, Station Road, Cambridge, the son of William Owen Aves, tailor and woollen draper, and his wife, Mary Ann Coales. He was educated in Cambridge at ...

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Charles Booth (1840–1916) by George Frederic Watts, c. 1901 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Booth, Charles (1840–1916), shipowner and social investigator, was born on 30 March 1840 at 27 Bedford North Street, Liverpool. He was the third son of Charles Booth (1799–1860), a prosperous corn merchant, and his first wife, Emily Fletcher (1803–1853). Both his parents were Unitarians, and had wide connections among the commercial, dissenting, and philanthropic ‘aristocracy’ of ...

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Bernard Bosanquet (1848–1923) by Walter Stoneman, 1917 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bosanquet, Bernard (1848–1923), philosopher and social theorist, was born on 14 June 1848 at Rock Hall, near Alnwick, the youngest of five sons of the Revd Robert William Bosanquet (1800–1880), of Rock, Northumberland, and formerly rector of Bolingbroke, Lincolnshire, son of Charles Bosanquet (1769–1850)...

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Brass, William [Bill] (1921–1999), demographer and statistician, was born in Edinburgh on 5 September 1921, the only son and second of the three children of John Brass (1892–1962), engineer, and his wife, Margaret Tait, née Haig (1893–1968), dressmaker. Family circumstances were not easy: his father was gassed in the First World War and never fully recovered. Compulsory attendance at Presbyterian services during childhood had no enduring effect, although the other family commitment, to the ...

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Busia, Kofi Abrefa (1913–1978), sociologist and politician, was born on 14 April or 11 July 1913 (he stated 11 July) at Wenchi, in the Asante region of the Gold Coast. He was the son of Yaw Bosea, a prominent member of the royal ...

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Chamberlain, Houston Stewart (1855–1927), racialist writer, was born on 9 September 1855 in Southsea, the last of the four children (one daughter and three sons) of Rear-Admiral William Charles Chamberlain (1818–1878), and his first wife, Eliza Jane (1825?–1856?), daughter of Captain Basil Hall RN...

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Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855–1927) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Eden, Sir Frederick Morton, second baronet (1766–1809), insurance company manager and writer on the state of the poor, was born at Ashtead, Surrey, the eldest son of Sir Robert Eden (created a baronet in 1776), governor of Maryland, and grandson of Sir Robert Eden, ...

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Gayre [formerly Gair], George Robert (1907–1996), racial theorist and specialist in heraldry, was born George Robert Gair at 4 Woodland Villas, Rathmines, Dublin, on 6 August 1907, the son of Robert William Gair (d. 1957) and his wife, Clara, née Hull...

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Gray, Benjamin Kirkman (1862–1907), historian of philanthropy and social policy, was born on 11 August 1862 at Blandford, Dorset, the eldest son of Benjamin Gray (d. 1905), Congregational minister, and his wife, Emma Jane (d. 1904), daughter of George Buchanan Kirkman...

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Hewitt, Margaret (1928–1991), sociologist and churchwoman, was born on 25 October 1928 at 63 Seedley Road, Pendleton, Salford, Lancashire, the daughter of Robert Henry Hewitt, who worked in the local education office, and his wife, Jessie, née Jones. She was educated at Pendleton girls' high school...

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Heysham, John (1753–1834), physician and demographer, was born on 22 November 1753 in Lancaster, the son of Gyles Heysham, shipowner, and Anne Cumming, daughter of a substantial yeoman ‘statesman farmer’ of Holme, Westmorland. The Heyshams were a junior branch of the Cornet (later Gernet)...

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Hobhouse, Leonard Trelawny (1864–1929), social philosopher and journalist, was born on 8 September 1864 at St Ive, near Liskeard, Cornwall, the youngest of the seven children of the Revd Reginald Hobhouse (1818–1895), rector of St Ive for fifty years and archdeacon of Bodmin...

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Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (1864–1929) by Elliott & Fry British Library of Political and Economic Science

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Hobson, John Atkinson (1858–1940), social theorist and economist, was born on 6 July 1858 at Iron Gate, Derby, the second son of William Hobson (1825–1897), founder, editor, and part proprietor of the Derbyshire Advertiser and twice mayor of Derby, and his wife, Josephine Atkinson...

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John Atkinson Hobson (1858–1940) by unknown photographer British Library of Political and Economic Science

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Hogge, James Myles [formerly James-Miles] (1873–1928), social researcher and politician, was born on 19 April 1873 at 4 St Cuthbert's Lane, Edinburgh, the son of Robert Hogg, a journeyman tailor, and his wife, Mary-Ann-Grameleslay Miles. He later changed the spelling of his middle name and surname. He was educated at the ...

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Jenkin, (Alfred) Kenneth Hamilton (1900–1980), social historian and industrial archaeologist, was born at Green Lane, Redruth, Cornwall, on 29 October 1900, the only child of Alfred Hamilton Jenkin, solicitor (d. 1919), and his wife, Amy Louisa, née Keep. Born into a family connected with mining since the mid-eighteenth century, he took a special interest in the mines and mining people of his native county from an early age. He was educated privately, then at school in ...