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Alfonsi, Petrus (fl. 1106–1126), scholar and translator of scientific works, was born in northern Spain, to Jewish parents. He was baptized a Christian on 29 June 1106 in Huesca, Aragon, with the names of the apostle on whose feast day the baptism took place and of his godfather, ...

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Cohen, John Michael (1903–1989), translator and literary scholar, was born on 5 February 1903 at 58 Carlton Hill, St John's Wood, London, the son of Arthur Cohen, master upholsterer, and his wife, Elizabeth, née Abrahams. Born into an assimilated Jewish family, he was educated at ...

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Dawood, Nessim Joseph (1927–2014), translator, Arabic scholar, and Middle East consultant, was born Nessim Yosef David Yehuda in Baghdad on 27 August 1927, the sixth of seven children of Yosef David Yehuda and his wife, Muzli, née Twaig. His father had been a Jewish Iraqi officer in the ...

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Fried, Erich (1921–1988), poet, translator, and essayist, was born on 6 May 1921 in Vienna, the only child of middle-class Jewish parents, Hugo Fried (1890–1938), haulage contractor, later hypnotist, and his wife, Nellie, née Stein (1896–1982). After the Nazi annexation of Austria his father was arrested and beaten to death by the ...

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Goldsmid, Anna Maria (1805–1889), benefactor and translator, was born on 17 September 1805, the eldest child of the financier and Jewish community leader Isaac Lyon Goldsmid (1778–1859) and his wife, Isabel, née Goldsmid (1788–1860). Her brother was Sir Francis Henry Goldsmid (1808–1878). She thus belonged to one of the most influential and wealthy Anglo-Jewish families of the early nineteenth century. Privately educated, she exhibited from an early age a remarkable aptitude for languages, studying Italian with the poet ...

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Hamburger, Michael Peter Leopold (1924–2007), poet, translator, and literary critic, was born in Berlin on 22 March 1924, the elder son and third of the four children of Richard Hamburger (1884–1940), an eminent paediatrician of Polish origin, and his wife, Lilli, née Hamburg (1887–1980)...

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Harari [née Benenson], Manya (1905–1969), publisher and translator, was born at Baku, Russia, on 8 April 1905, the fourth child and youngest daughter of Grigory Benenson, a Jewish financier, and his wife, Sophie Goldberg. While Benenson amassed an enormous fortune Manya's childhood was spent amid the opulence of a rented top floor of ...

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Jacobs, Arthur [pseud. A. C. Jacobs] (1937–1994), poet and translator, was born at 8 Marywood Square, Glasgow, on 13 May 1937, the only son and elder child of Moses Jacobs, a drapery warehouseman whose business was in the Gorbals district, and his wife, ...

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Koteliansky, Samuel Solomonovich [known as Kot] (1880–1955), translator and literary associate, was born on 28 February 1880 in Ostropol, Starokonstantinov district, Volhynia province (present-day Ukraine), a part of the Russian empire's vast pale of settlement to which Jews were confined. He was naturalized as a British citizen in 1929, and in his British passport his date of birth is given as 1 April 1880, a discrepancy that is most likely an instance of ...

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Lee, Elizabeth (1857/8–1920), biographer and translator, was born in Keppel Street, Russell Square, London, the daughter of Lazarus Lee (b. 1824/5), who dealt in ostrich feathers, and his wife, Jessie Davis (b. 1836/7). She was one of at least six children. Her family was Jewish, and had changed its name from ...

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Leftwich, Joseph (1892–1983), writer, editor, and translator, was born Joseph Lewkowitz on 20 September 1892 in Zutphen, the Netherlands, the son of Leopold Lewkowitz, a Polish Jewish cobbler, and his wife, Johanna Bachara. According to the 'Autobiographical Note' included in his eighty-fifth birthday tribute, he was fortunate to survive a difficult circumcision. The family moved to ...

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Loewe, Raphael James (1919–2011), Hebrew scholar, translator, and poet, was born on 16 April 1919 in Calcutta, India, the elder of two surviving sons of Herbert Martin James Loewe (1882–1940), Hebrew scholar, and his wife, Ethel Victoria, née Hyamson (1887–1946). His younger brother, ...

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Pomerans, Arnold Julius [Arno] (1920–2005), translator, was born in Königsberg, Germany, on 27 April 1920, the son of William Pomerans, accountant. Antisemitism was a precipitating factor in the family's relocations during his childhood, first to Berlin and then to Yugoslavia. His father's profession meant he could practise wherever they settled. By the time ...

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Sonntag, Jacob (1905–1984), journal editor and translator, was born on 15 April 1905 at Vijnita (Wiznitz), northern Bukovina, then a part of the Austro-Hungarian empire (and now in Ukraine), the eldest child (there were three younger brothers and one younger sister) of ...

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Jacob Sonntag (1905–1984) by unknown photographer, early 1970s © reserved; private collection

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Sutro, Alfred (1863–1933), playwright and translator, was born at 3 Dean Street, Finsbury Square, London, on 7 August 1863. He was the youngest son of the five children of Helena Cohen (1829/30–1891) and Sigismund Sutro MD (1815–1886), an authority on continental spas who emigrated from ...

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Zimmern, Helen (1846–1934), translator and author, was born in Hamburg, Germany, on 25 March 1846. She was the daughter of Hermann Theodor Zimmern a lace merchant, and his wife, Antonia Marie Therese Regina, sister of Carl Leo, a syndic of Hamburg. Alice Louisa Theodora Zimmern...