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Adams, George (b. 1697/8), translator and writer, was the son of George Adams (d. 1724?), clergyman (probably rector of Upton, Huntingdonshire, 1703–24). He was educated at Peterborough School and at St John's College, Cambridge, where he was admitted, aged eighteen, as a sizar on 23 May 1716 and graduated BA in 1720 and MA in 1735; in 1729 he became a fellow of the college. He was ordained deacon in ...

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Addison, John (fl. 1735–1736), translator, evidently received a good education, though nothing is known about his family or his life other than the fact that he published in London two books of translation from the classics. The first, The works of Anacreon translated into English verse, with notes explanatory and poetical, to which are added the odes, fragments, and epigrams of Sappho, with the original Greek plac'd opposite to the translation...

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Adgar [William] (fl. 1150x1200), Anglo-Norman translator, was baptized Adgar but reveals that he was more commonly known as William; Trouvère (roughly meaning ‘poet’) is a later and inauthentic epithet. As the author of the first vernacular rendering of the miracles of the Virgin Mary...

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Alday, John (fl. 1566–1579), translator, whose origins are obscure, is described by Tanner as a resident in London (Tanner, Bibl. Brit.-hib., 25). He seems to have been preoccupied in particular with the state of man, as evidenced by his principal work, ...

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Alfonsi, Petrus (fl. 1106–1126), scholar and translator of scientific works, was born in northern Spain, to Jewish parents. He was baptized a Christian on 29 June 1106 in Huesca, Aragon, with the names of the apostle on whose feast day the baptism took place and of his godfather, ...

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Allibond, Peter (1559/60–1629), Church of England clergyman and translator, was born at Wardington, Oxfordshire, where his family had lived for many generations; his parents' names are not known. He became a student at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, in 1578 (according to Anthony Wood): he matriculated from there, aged twenty, on 15 April 1580, graduated BA on 21 February 1582, and proceeded MA on 6 July 1585. After some years spent in foreign travel, he was ordained. In 1592 ...

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Allies, Mary Helen Agnes (1852–1927), historian and translator, was born possibly at St John's Wood, London, on 2 February 1852, the eldest daughter of Thomas William Allies (1813–1903) and his wife, Eliza Hall (d. 1902), second daughter of Thomas Harding Newman of ...

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Andrewe, Laurence (fl. c. 1520–1530), printer and translator, describes himself in the prologue to his edition of the Hortus sanitatis ([1527]), as 'of the towne of Calis' (sig. Aiir). Andrewe published seven surviving works in London between 1527 and 1529 'at the sygne of the golden crosse' in ...

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Andrews, Robert (fl. 1747–1766), translator, was born into a nonconformist family which had lived for nearly two hundred years at Little Lever and at Rivington Hall, near Bolton, Lancashire. Nothing further is known of his parents. He was educated by Dr Caleb Rotheram...

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Anslay, Brian (d. 1536), administrator and translator, about whose parentage and origins little is known, participated, as yeoman of the wine cellar, in Henry VII's funeral procession and in Henry VIII's coronation ceremonies in 1509. In 1521 his translation of Christine de Pisan's...

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Arnold, Elizabeth (fl. 1616), translator, may have been the daughter of William Arnold of Cromer, Norfolk, whose genealogical line was recorded by the visitation of the Society of Heralds to Norfolk in 1613, although no details of her birth, death, and family are known. ...

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Arnold, Thomas James (1803–1877), barrister and literary translator, was born on 6 July 1803 in Downing Street, Westminster, London, the eldest son of Samuel James Arnold (1774–1852), dramatist, and Matilda Catherine Pye (d. 1851), younger daughter of Henry James Pye, MP and poet laureate. He was educated at ...

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Ashley, Sir Anthony, baronet (1551/2–1628), politician and translator of The Mariners Mirrour, was the eldest son of Sir Anthony Ashley of Damerham in Hampshire, a cadet of the long-established Ashleys of Wimborne St Giles (Dorset), and Dorothy, daughter of John Lyte of Lytes Cary (Somerset)...

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Ashley, Robert (1565–1641), translator and book collector, was born on 2 July 1565, second son of Anthony Ashley, of Damerham, Wiltshire, and Dorothy Lyte; he was the brother of Sir Anthony Ashley and Sir Francis Ashley. At an early age he acquired fluent French under ...

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Ashmore, John (fl. 1621), translator and poet, was probably a native of the area near Ripon in Yorkshire (to which his poems repeatedly refer), but his life appears obscure. There are no records of his attending university. He was the first to publish a selection of ...

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Ashton, Peter (d. 1548), translator, may be the same person as the prebendary of Lincoln (1542–8); if so, he was the son of Peter Ashton, of Old Weston, Huntingdonshire, and studied at Cambridge (his college is not known), where he graduated BA in 1516 and MA in 1519. He was fellow of ...

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Ashurst, Elizabeth Ann [Eliza] (c. 1814–1850), translator and campaigner for women's rights and against slavery, was born in Muswell Hill, Middlesex, the eldest child of William Henry Ashurst (bap. 1791?, d. 1855), of Muswell Hill, and his wife, Elizabeth Ann, née Brown (...

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Atkinson, William (d. 1509), translator, lived in the diocese of York, and was one of the original fellows of Jesus College, Cambridge, by 1499. He gained the degrees of BA in 1475, MA in 1478, BD in 1489, and DD in 1497. He was appointed fellow of ...

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Aubin, Penelope (1679?–1738), novelist and translator, was the daughter of Sir Richard Temple, third baronet (1634–1697), and his mistress, Anne Charleton, second daughter of the physician and natural philosopher Walter Charleton (1620–1707). Suggestions, originating with Abbé Antoine Prévost, that Penelope was the daughter of a French émigré officer have been disproved by recent research that has also added substantially to aspects of her biography (...

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T. F. T. Dyer

revised by J. A. Marchand

Aufrere, Anthony (1756–1833), translator and antiquary in Europe, was the eldest son of Anthony Aufrere (1730–1814), landowner and magistrate, of Hoveton Hall, Norfolk, and Anna (1735–1816), the only daughter of John Norris (d. 1734), of Witton, Norfolk, and Anna Carthew. His mother was the sister of ...