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Benmohel, Nathan Lazarus (1803–1869), Hebrew and German scholar, was born in Hamburg, Germany, son of Rabbi Elieza Lazi (1741–1841), presiding judge, or dayan, of Posen, and the united congregations of Altona, Hamburg, and Wandsbeck. His mother was the daughter of Rabbi Todros Munk...

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Bernays, Adolphus (1794–1864), German scholar, was born Aaron Jacob Bernays on 18 May 1794 in Mainz, Germany, the fifth of eight children of a well-to-do Jewish innkeeper, Jacob Bernays (1747–1817), and his wife, Martha, née Welsch (b. 1761). The wider Bernays family included many notable figures, among them his brother ...

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Carlyle, Thomas (1803–1855), apostle of the Catholic Apostolic church and German scholar, was born on 17 July 1803 at King's Grange, near Castle Douglas, Kirkcudbrightshire, of an old Dumfriesshire family. His father, William Carlyle (1759–1824), a lawyer, married in 1802 Margaret Heriot, widow of ...

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Closs, August Max (1898–1990), German scholar, was born on 9 August 1898 at Neumarkt, Styria, Austria, the son of Alois Closs (1852–1909), an official at the local law court, and his wife, Rosa, née Halm (1872–1960). After schooling at the Fürstbischöfliches Gymnasium, Graz...

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Deneke, Helena Clara (1878–1973), German scholar, was born on 19 May 1878 at 89 Denmark Hill, London, the oldest child and elder of the two surviving daughters of Philip Maurice Deneke (1842–1925), a wealthy London merchant banker born in Germany, and his wife, ...

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Helena Clara Deneke (1878–1973) by Hubert Andrew Freeth [left, with her sister, Margaret Deneke] private collection

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Fiedler, Hermann Georg (1862–1945), German scholar, was born on 28 April 1862 at Zittau, Saxony, the second of three children of August Fiedler (1837–1912) and Minna Grossmann (1842–1894). His father was Musikdirektor at Zittau and his elder brother (August) Max Fiedler (1859–1939) became one of the most renowned conductors of his time. His sister ...

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Forster, Leonard Wilson (1913–1997), German scholar, was born in London on 30 March 1913, the son of Edward James Forster, businessman, and his wife, Linda Charlotte, née Rogers. After Marlborough College, he read modern and medieval languages at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, from 1931 to 1934, little imagining when he attended the funeral of the first Schröder professor of German, ...

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Hatto, Arthur Thomas (1910–2010), scholar of German literature and of archaic poetry, was born at 299a Stanstead Road, Forest Hill, London, on 11 February 1910, the only child of Thomas Hatto (1888–1963), solicitor's clerk, and his wife, Alice Maud, née Walters (1885–1976), a nurse. At the age of thirteen he won a scholarship to ...

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Jolles, Charlotte Alice Berta Eva (1909–2003), German scholar, was born on 5 October 1909 in Berlin, Germany, the daughter of Leopold Jolles (d. 1938), engineer, and his wife, Katharina, née Weihkopf. She attended school there from 1916 to 1929 and university from 1929 to 1936, studying German, history, philosophy, and educational theory. She first pursued her enduring interest in the development of democratic ideas in ...

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Luke, Frederic Davey [David] (1921–2005), German scholar and translator, was born at Emsworth, Linden Road, Clevedon, Somerset, on 13 June 1921, the son of Thomas Davey Luke, a doctor, and his wife, Jane Thompson, née Pattison. His father died young, and Luke (known in the family as ...

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Mason, Eudo Colecestra (1901–1969), German scholar, was born in Colchester, Essex, on 26 September 1901, the third son of Ernest Nathan Mason (1867–1935), engineer's draughtsman, and his wife, Bertha Betsy, née Kitton (1872–1940), a governess. His father, who had published a study entitled ...

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Oswald, Eugene (1826–1912), teacher and writer, was born in Heidelberg on 16 October 1826, the youngest of the five children of Carl August Oswald, a publisher in Heidelberg, and his wife, Christiana Augusta Brédé, who was of Huguenot descent. Though of a scholarly bent, ...

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Robertson, John George (1867–1933), German scholar, was born on 18 January 1867 in Glasgow, the eldest of five children of John Robertson, lecturer in the Glasgow Church of Scotland Training College, and his wife, Janet Scott Duncan. The young Robertson received much encouragement, especially in the study of science, from his father, who considered the publication of ...

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Stern, (Joseph) Peter Maria (1920–1991), German scholar, was born into a Catholic–Jewish family at Prague on 25 December 1920. He was the son of Gustav Stern, economist, and his wife, Louisa, née Bondy (d. 1939). His father, who had fought in the ...