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Abendana, Isaac (d. 1699), Hebraist and book collector, was born in Spain and was taken at an early age to Hamburg, Germany. By 1660 he had completed rabbinical studies and by his own account sought the 'wisdom of medicine' (Katz, The Abendana brothers, 36...

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Abraham, Roy Clive (1890–1963), scholar of African languages and colonial administrator, was born on 16 December 1890 in Melbourne, Australia, the second son of Isaac Abraham (1849-1918) and his wife Amy nee Soloman (b. 1861). From a Jewish background, he studied at ...

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Abramsky, Yehezkel (1886–1976), rabbinic scholar and Orthodox Jewish leader, was born on or about 7 February 1886 in Dashkovtsy, near Most and Grodno, Lithuania, the third child and eldest son of Mordecai Zalman Abramsky, a local timber merchant, and his wife, Freydel Goldin...

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Aguilar, Grace (1816–1847), writer on Jewish history and religion and novelist, was born on 2 June 1816 in Hackney, Middlesex, the eldest of the three children of Emanuel Aguilar (1787–1845), merchant, and his wife, Sarah (d. 1854), daughter of Jacob Dias Fernandez...

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Alfonsi, Petrus (fl. 1106–1126), scholar and translator of scientific works, was born in northern Spain, to Jewish parents. He was baptized a Christian on 29 June 1106 in Huesca, Aragon, with the names of the apostle on whose feast day the baptism took place and of his godfather, ...

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A. S. Fulton

revised by J. B. Katz

Barnett, Lionel David (1871–1960), orientalist, was born in Liverpool on 21 October 1871, the eldest son of Baron Barnett, banker, and his wife, Adelaide Cowan. He was educated at the high school, institute, and University College, Liverpool. He went up to Trinity College, Cambridge...

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Sidney Lee

revised by Roger T. Stearn

Benisch, Abraham (1811–1878), Hebraist and newspaper editor, was born to Jewish parents at Drossau, a small town 8 miles south-west of Klattau in Bohemia. About 1836 he studied surgery at Prague University where, with other Jewish students, he formed an organization for re-establishing Jewish independence in ...

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Benmohel, Nathan Lazarus (1803–1869), Hebrew and German scholar, was born in Hamburg, Germany, son of Rabbi Elieza Lazi (1741–1841), presiding judge, or dayan, of Posen, and the united congregations of Altona, Hamburg, and Wandsbeck. His mother was the daughter of Rabbi Todros Munk...

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Bernays, Adolphus (1794–1864), German scholar, was born Aaron Jacob Bernays on 18 May 1794 in Mainz, Germany, the fifth of eight children of a well-to-do Jewish innkeeper, Jacob Bernays (1747–1817), and his wife, Martha, née Welsch (b. 1761). The wider Bernays family included many notable figures, among them his brother ...

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Cohen, John Michael (1903–1989), translator and literary scholar, was born on 5 February 1903 at 58 Carlton Hill, St John's Wood, London, the son of Arthur Cohen, master upholsterer, and his wife, Elizabeth, née Abrahams. Born into an assimilated Jewish family, he was educated at ...

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Dawood, Nessim Joseph (1927–2014), translator, Arabic scholar, and Middle East consultant, was born Nessim Yosef David Yehuda in Baghdad on 27 August 1927, the sixth of seven children of Yosef David Yehuda and his wife, Muzli, née Twaig. His father had been a Jewish Iraqi officer in the ...

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Deutsch, Emanuel Oscar Menahem (1829–1873), Semitic scholar and orientalist, was born of Jewish parents in Neisse in Prussian Silesia on 28 October 1829, and at the age of six entered the local Gymnasium. Two years later he was sent to study with his uncle, ...

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Ferdinand, Philip (1556–1599), Hebrew and Arabic scholar, was born of Jewish parentage in Poland in 1556. In his youth he studied the Talmud in the traditional Jewish manner and, judging from his elegant Latin, his command of Greek, and his fine handwriting, also received a humanist education. After about 1580 he was in ...

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Fried, Erich (1921–1988), poet, translator, and essayist, was born on 6 May 1921 in Vienna, the only child of middle-class Jewish parents, Hugo Fried (1890–1938), haulage contractor, later hypnotist, and his wife, Nellie, née Stein (1896–1982). After the Nazi annexation of Austria his father was arrested and beaten to death by the ...

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Ganz, Peter Felix (1920–2006), German scholar, was born on 3 November 1920 in Mainz, Germany, the son of Hermann Friedrich Ignaz Ganz, who was company secretary in the family carpet business, and his wife, Charlotte (Lotte), née Fromberg. Both parents had doctorates in law. His father's was a long-established ...

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Glück, Louis [pseud. Louis Glück Rosenthal] (1804–1874), artist and Hebrew scholar, was born in Posen in Prussia. His father, Pielte Elimelech Glück (d. c.1840), a furrier, was a prominent (hakham) member of the Jewish community. Nothing is known of ...

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Goldsmid, Anna Maria (1805–1889), benefactor and translator, was born on 17 September 1805, the eldest child of the financier and Jewish community leader Isaac Lyon Goldsmid (1778–1859) and his wife, Isabel, née Goldsmid (1788–1860). Her brother was Sir Francis Henry Goldsmid (1808–1878). She thus belonged to one of the most influential and wealthy Anglo-Jewish families of the early nineteenth century. Privately educated, she exhibited from an early age a remarkable aptitude for languages, studying Italian with the poet ...

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Gollancz, Sir Hermann (1852–1930), rabbi and Semitic scholar, was born at Bremen on 30 November 1852, the eldest son of Rabbi Samuel Marcus Gollancz, minister of the Hambro Synagogue, then in Leadenhall Street, London, and his wife, Johanna Koppell. He had three sisters and three brothers, his youngest brother being ...

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Hamburger, Michael Peter Leopold (1924–2007), poet, translator, and literary critic, was born in Berlin on 22 March 1924, the elder son and third of the four children of Richard Hamburger (1884–1940), an eminent paediatrician of Polish origin, and his wife, Lilli, née Hamburg (1887–1980)...

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Harari [née Benenson], Manya (1905–1969), publisher and translator, was born at Baku, Russia, on 8 April 1905, the fourth child and youngest daughter of Grigory Benenson, a Jewish financier, and his wife, Sophie Goldberg. While Benenson amassed an enormous fortune Manya's childhood was spent amid the opulence of a rented top floor of ...