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Adams, William Davenport (1851–1904), journalist and compiler of reference works, was born at Park Terrace, New Park Road, Brixton, on 28 December 1851, the elder surviving son of William Henry Davenport Adams (1828–1891), then a private tutor, and his wife, Sarah Esther, née...

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Bartholomaeus Anglicus (b. before 1203, d. 1272), Franciscan friar and encyclopaedist, is of unknown parentage, and there is no information about his early years. His association with the Suffolk Glanvilles, reported by John Leland, who identifies Bartholomaeus as Bartholomew de Glanville, depends upon a late fourteenth-century colophon in Cambridge, Peterhouse, MS 67. ...

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Bartholomaeus Anglicus (b. before 1203, d. 1272) illuminated initial © The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford

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Thomas Spencer Baynes (1823–1887) by Thomas Rodger courtesy of St Andrews University Library

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Baynes, Thomas Spencer (1823–1887), editor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, was born on 24 March 1823 at Wellington, Somerset, the son of Joseph Baynes (for fifty years minister of Wellington's Baptist congregation) and his wife, Anna Day Ash, a descendant of the lexicographer Dr John Ash...

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Brown, James Duff (1862–1914), librarian and compiler of music reference books, was born on 6 November 1862 at 3 Reid Terrace, Stockbridge, Edinburgh, the second of seven children of James Brown of St Fergus, Aberdeenshire, a bookkeeper, and his wife, Margaret Douglas of ...

Article

Francis Espinasse

revised by Michael Harris

Chambers, Ephraim (1680?–1740), encyclopaedist, was born at Milton, near Kendal, Westmorland, where his father, Richard Chambers, occupied and owned a small farm. He was one of three sons and two daughters. Educated at Heversham grammar school, Westmorland, he was sent to London...

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Chisholm, Hugh (1866–1924), journalist and editor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, was born at 21 Harewood Square, London, on 22 February 1866. His father, Henry Williams Chisholm (1809–1901), became a senior civil servant, chief clerk of the exchequer, and author of The Great Account of Annual Public Income and Expenditure from 1688 to 1869...

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Gilbert, Richard (c. 1794–1852), printer and editor of reference works, was born in St John's Square, Clerkenwell, London, the second son of Robert Gilbert, printer. His mother's name is not known. He had at least one sister, whose name is unknown. He began his working life as an accountant for the ...

Article

L. C. Sanders

revised by H. C. G. Matthew

Gorton, John G. (d. 1835?), compiler of reference works and translator, was a literary figure known now only through his works. He translated Voltaire's Dictionnaire philosophique (1824) and published A General Biographical Dictionary (2 vols., 1828; with appx, 1830?; new edn, with a supplement by ...

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Gowers, Sir Ernest Arthur (1880–1966), public servant and writer of reference works, was born in London on 2 June 1880, the younger of the two sons among the four children of Sir William Richard Gowers (1845–1915), physician, and his wife, Mary (d...

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Halliwell, (Robert James) Leslie (1929–1989), film buyer and encyclopaedist, was born on 23 February 1929 in Bolton, Lancashire, the youngest child by thirteen years and only son in the family of three children of James Halliwell, cotton spinner, of Bolton, and his wife, ...

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Sir John Alexander Hammerton (1871–1949) by Howard Coster, 1945 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Hammerton, Sir John Alexander (1871–1949), author and editor of reference works, was born in Alexandria, Dunbartonshire, on 27 February 1871, the second in a family of two sons and one daughter of James Hammerton (1832/3–1874/5), clog maker of Oldham, and his second wife, ...

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Harvey, Sir (Henry) Paul (1869–1948), civil servant and writer of reference books, was born on 1 October 1869 in Paris, France, the son of Henri Joseph François de Triqueti, baron de Triqueti (1804–1874), a respected French sculptor, whose commissions included the cenotaph of ...

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Haydn, Joseph Timothy (1788/1793–1856), newspaper editor and compiler of reference works, was born in Lisbon on 24 November 1788 or 1793, the son of Thomas Haydn, an expatriate protestant Irishman. In 1809 he fled Napoleon's invading army in a 'once-Danish frigate' sailing to ...

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Hogarth [married name Courtney], Janet Elizabeth (1865–1954), writer and encyclopaedia editor, was born on 27 November 1865 at Barton upon Humber, Lincolnshire, the second daughter and fifth child of the Revd George Hogarth (1827–1902), rector of Barton, and his wife, Jane Elizabeth (1834–1921)...

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Jones, Stephen (1763–1827), journal editor and compiler of reference works, was born in London and baptized at St Martin-in-the-Fields on 25 October 1763, the son of Giles Jones [see under Jones, Griffith], author, and Ellen Jane Maria Fewtrell. His uncle was ...

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Lee, Sir Sidney (1859–1926), second editor of the Dictionary of National Biography and literary scholar, was born Solomon Lazarus Lee at 12 Keppel Street, Bloomsbury, London, on 5 December 1859, the elder son of Lazarus Lee, merchant, and his wife, Jessie Davis. He had a younger brother and four sisters, of whom the eldest of the family, ...

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Sir Sidney Lee (1859–1926) by Frederick Hollyer V&A Images, The Victoria and Albert Museum