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Adams, William Davenport (1851–1904), journalist and compiler of reference works, was born at Park Terrace, New Park Road, Brixton, on 28 December 1851, the elder surviving son of William Henry Davenport Adams (1828–1891), then a private tutor, and his wife, Sarah Esther, née...

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Francesco Algarotti, Count Algarotti in the Prussian nobility (1712–1764) by Jean-Étienne Liotard, c. 1745 Rijksprentenkabinet, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

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Algarotti, Francesco, Count Algarotti in the Prussian nobility (1712–1764), poet and scholar, was born on 11 December 1712 in the family home in Venice on the Fondamenta Nuove, the second son of Rocco Algarotti (d. 1726) and his wife, Maria Mercati. His father was a prosperous merchant of Paduan origin, settled in ...

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Ammonius, Andreas [Andrea della Rena] (bap. 1476, d. 1517), humanist scholar and poet, was the son of Elisabetta Vanni and her husband, Francesco della Rena (dell' Arena). Of a family long established as silk weavers at Lucca, he was baptized in the cathedral there on 13 October 1476. In preparation for an ecclesiastical career, he studied with ...

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Beard, Charles (1827–1888), Unitarian minister, scholar, and journal editor, was born at Higher Broughton, Manchester, on 27 July 1827, the eldest son of John Relly Beard (1800–1876), Unitarian minister at Salford, and his wife, Mary Barnes (1802–1887). Educated at his father's school, he studied at ...

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Bronowski, Jacob (1908–1974), mathematician, poet, and humanist, was born on 18 January 1908 in Łódź, Poland, the first of the three children of Abram Bronowski, haberdasher, and his wife, Celia Flatto. During the First World War the family lived in Germany, and in 1920 they moved to ...

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Jacob Bronowski (1908–1974) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Brown, James Duff (1862–1914), librarian and compiler of music reference books, was born on 6 November 1862 at 3 Reid Terrace, Stockbridge, Edinburgh, the second of seven children of James Brown of St Fergus, Aberdeenshire, a bookkeeper, and his wife, Margaret Douglas of ...

Article

T. F. Henderson

revised by K. D. Reynolds

Busk, Hans, the elder (1772–1862), scholar and poet, was born on 28 May 1772, the youngest son of Sir Wadsworth Busk (1730–1811), attorney-general of the Isle of Man and treasurer of the Middle Temple, and Alice (d. 1776), daughter and coheir of ...

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Cheriton, Odo of (1180s–1246), author and scholar, was born in Kent in the 1180s, into a wealthy Anglo-Norman family originally settled at Cheriton near Folkestone by a founding Odo, recorded as being kin to the then archbishop of Canterbury. His father, William of Cheriton...

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Chisholm, Hugh (1866–1924), journalist and editor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, was born at 21 Harewood Square, London, on 22 February 1866. His father, Henry Williams Chisholm (1809–1901), became a senior civil servant, chief clerk of the exchequer, and author of The Great Account of Annual Public Income and Expenditure from 1688 to 1869...

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Clark, Andrew (1856–1922), Church of England clergyman, scholar, and diarist, was born on 5 June 1856 at Dollarfield, Clackmannanshire, the fifth son of Robert Clark, a farm worker, and his wife, Eliza Bowie. He was educated at Dollar Academy and from 1871 to 1875 at the ...

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Evans, Evan [pseud. Ieuan Fardd; called Ieuan Brydydd Hir] (1731–1788), scholar and poet, was born on 20 May 1731 at Cynhawdref farm in the parish of Lledrod, Cardiganshire. The son of Jenkin Evans (d. c.1758), a farmer, and his wife, ...

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Gilbert, Richard (c. 1794–1852), printer and editor of reference works, was born in St John's Square, Clerkenwell, London, the second son of Robert Gilbert, printer. His mother's name is not known. He had at least one sister, whose name is unknown. He began his working life as an accountant for the ...

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L. C. Sanders

revised by H. C. G. Matthew

Gorton, John G. (d. 1835?), compiler of reference works and translator, was a literary figure known now only through his works. He translated Voltaire's Dictionnaire philosophique (1824) and published A General Biographical Dictionary (2 vols., 1828; with appx, 1830?; new edn, with a supplement by ...

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Grierson, Sir Herbert John Clifford (1866–1960), literary critic and scholar, was born on 16 January 1866 in Commercial Street, Lerwick, Shetland, the third of the six children of Andrew John Grierson (1832–1896) and Alice Geraldine Clifford (1837–1917). His father owned the estate of ...

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Sir John Alexander Hammerton (1871–1949) by Howard Coster, 1945 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Hammerton, Sir John Alexander (1871–1949), author and editor of reference works, was born in Alexandria, Dunbartonshire, on 27 February 1871, the second in a family of two sons and one daughter of James Hammerton (1832/3–1874/5), clog maker of Oldham, and his second wife, ...

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Haydn, Joseph Timothy (1788/1793–1856), newspaper editor and compiler of reference works, was born in Lisbon on 24 November 1788 or 1793, the son of Thomas Haydn, an expatriate protestant Irishman. In 1809 he fled Napoleon's invading army in a 'once-Danish frigate' sailing to ...

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Hogarth [married name Courtney], Janet Elizabeth (1865–1954), writer and encyclopaedia editor, was born on 27 November 1865 at Barton upon Humber, Lincolnshire, the second daughter and fifth child of the Revd George Hogarth (1827–1902), rector of Barton, and his wife, Jane Elizabeth (1834–1921)...