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John Laird

revised by Michael A. Weinstein

Alexander, Samuel (1859–1938), philosopher, the third son and fourth child of Samuel Alexander, an Australian, and his wife, Eliza Sloman, who came from Cape Town, was born at Sydney, New South Wales, on 6 January 1859. His father, a saddler, died of consumption at the age of thirty-eight, shortly before his birth. His mother died in his house at ...

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Samuel Alexander (1859–1938) by Francis Dodd, 1932 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Sir Isaiah Berlin (1909–1997) by Lucinda Douglas-Menzies, 1988 © Lucinda Douglas-Menzies; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Berlin, Sir Isaiah (1909–1997), philosopher and historian of ideas, was born on 6 June 1909 in Riga, Latvia, then part of the Russian empire, the son of Mendel Borisovitch Berlin (1884–1953), a prosperous timber merchant whose main business was supplying wooden sleepers for the Russian railways, and his wife, ...

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Black, Max (1909–1988), philosopher, was born on 24 February 1909 in Baku, Russia, the first of four children of Lionel Black (formerly Tcherny; 1885–1960), merchant, and Sophia Divinska (d. c.1970). Sir Misha Black was his younger brother. The family migrated to ...

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Bohm, David Joseph (1917–1992), physicist and philosopher, was born on 20 December 1917 in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, USA, the son of Samuel Bohm, proprietor of a furniture store, and his wife, Freda. Both parents were immigrants from Europe, his father being born in the ...

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Ginsberg, Morris (1889–1970), sociologist and philosopher, was born in Lithuania on 14 May 1889, the son of Meyer Ginsberg, tobacco manufacturer. He migrated to Britain, where he attracted attention as a talented undergraduate while reading philosophy at University College, London (UCL), which he entered in 1910. Such a migration was common enough at that time but, as ...

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Morris Ginsberg (1889–1970) by Claude Rogers, 1960 © Estate of Claude Rogers; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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David Wiggins and Francis Dunlop

Kolnai, Aurel Thomas (1900–1973), philosopher, was born on 5 December 1900 in Budapest, Hungary, the second son of Ármin Stein (b. 1858), a savings bank director, and his wife, Valéria Glück (b. 1871), both Liberal Jews. Kolnai completed his secondary education (1910–18) with distinction at the ...

Article

Markus, Robert Austin (1924–2010), historian and philosopher, was born Róbert Imre Márkus on 8 October 1924 in Budapest, Hungary, the son of Gyözö (Victor) Márkus (1897–1971), director of an engineering firm, and his wife, Lili (Lily), née Elek (1900–1962), artist. He attended the ...

Article

Rose [née Stone], Gillian Rosemary (1947–1995), philosopher, was born on 20 September 1947 at the Avenue Road Clinic, Hampstead, London. She was the eldest child of Leslie David Stone, doctor of medicine, and his wife, Evelyn (Lynn) Preveser. Her parents, who were Jewish, divorced, and at sixteen she took the surname of her stepfather, ...