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Agard, Arthur (1535/6–1615), archivist and antiquary, was born at Foston, Derbyshire, the second of the three sons of Clement Agard of Foston and his wife, Eleanor, daughter of Thomas Middlemore of Edgbaston. He matriculated from Queens' College, Cambridge, at Michaelmas 1553, but nothing further is known of his education, and there is no doubt that the greater part of his learning came by his study of the records of which he had charge. His knowledge of the common law may have been acquired first in one of the inns of court. ...

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Ames, Joseph (bap. 1687, d. 1759), bibliographer and antiquary, was born of a seafaring family in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, and baptized there on 20 June 1687. He was the son of John Ames (1651–1699?), master in the merchant service, and his wife, Esther (...

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Henry Spencer Ashbee (1834–1900) by H. T. Reed, 1889 private collection; photograph National Portrait Gallery, London

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Ashbee, Henry Spencer [pseud. Pisanus Fraxi] (1834–1900), book collector and bibliographer, was born on 21 April 1834 at 24 Blackfriars Road, Southwark, London, the only child of Robert Ashbee (1804–1867), manager of the Curtis and Harvey gunpowder mills, and his wife, Frances Elizabeth, ...

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Ashley, Robert (1565–1641), translator and book collector, was born on 2 July 1565, second son of Anthony Ashley, of Damerham, Wiltshire, and Dorothy Lyte; he was the brother of Sir Anthony Ashley and Sir Francis Ashley. At an early age he acquired fluent French under ...

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Askew, Anthony (bap. 1722, d. 1774), physician and book collector, was born in Kendal, Westmorland, where he was baptized on 7 May 1722, the son of Adam Askew, physician, and his wife, Anne Crackenthorp. In 1725 his family moved to Newcastle, where his father established a well-respected practice. ...

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Astle, Thomas (1735–1803), archivist and collector of books and manuscripts, was born on 22 December 1735 at Yoxall, on the edge of Needwood Forest, Staffordshire, the eldest son of Daniel Astle (d. 1775), keeper of the forest, who was of a family long established at ...

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Thomas Astle (1735–1803) by William Skelton, pubd 1803 (after Henry Howard) © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

H. R. Tedder

revised by Michael Bevan

Atkinson, James (1759–1839), surgeon and bibliographer, the son of a medical practitioner and friend of Laurence Sterne, received his medical education as a pupil of Henry Cline of St Thomas's Hospital, London, and attended the lectures of Thomas Denman, physician-accoucheur to the Middlesex Hospital...

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James Atkinson (1759–1839) by William Etty, 1832 York Museums Trust (York Art Gallery)

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Austin, (Ethel) Winifred (1873–1918), pioneer of library services for blind people, was born on 7 October 1873 (not 1875, as her obituaries state) at 3 Lansdowne Place, Blackheath Hill, London, the tenth child of George Austin (1824/5–1887) and Mary Anne Jane Cullum Aldridge (...

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Axon, William Edward Armytage (1846–1913), librarian and antiquary, was born on 13 January 1846, at 12 Honduras Street, Chorlton-on-Medlock, Manchester. He was the illegitimate son of Edward Armytage, clothing manufacturer, and Lydia Whitehead, a servant girl in his household, aged fifteen. Lydia Whitehead...

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Samuel Ayscough (1745–1804) by James Basire, pubd 1804 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Ayscough, Samuel (1745–1804), librarian and antiquary, was born in Nottingham and baptized at St Peter's, Nottingham, on 29 November 1745, the only son of George Ayscough (1721/2–1783), printer, and his second wife, Edith Wigley. His grandfather, William Ayscough, was a stationer and printer in ...

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Baber, Henry Hervey (bap. 1775, d. 1869), librarian, was baptized at Slingsby, Yorkshire, on 22 August 1775, the son of Thomas Baber, barrister, and grandson of Thomas Draper Baber, of Sunninghill, Berkshire. He entered St Paul's School, London, in 1786, and became a ...

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Ballinger, Sir John (1860–1933), librarian, was born in Pontnewynydd, Monmouthshire, on 12 May 1860, the younger son and second of four children of Henry Ballinger of Whitchurch, Herefordshire, a metallurgical engineer, and his wife, Jane Williams (1827–1896) of Llanrumney. His father died in 1866. He was educated at ...

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Bulkeley Bandinel (1781–1861) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bandinel, Bulkeley (1781–1861), librarian, was born in Oxford on 21 February 1781, the third child of James Bandinel (d. 1804), fellow of Jesus College, and his wife, Margaret. His ancestors, originally from Italy, had moved to Jersey early in the seventeenth century. His father was the first of the family to settle in ...

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Topham Beauclerk (1739–1780) by Samuel Bellin (after George Perfect Harding?) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Beauclerk, Topham (1739–1780), book collector, was born on 21 December 1739, the only son of Lord Sidney Beauclerk (1703–1744), member of parliament, privy councillor, and vice-chamberlain of the royal household, and his wife, Mary (d. 1766), daughter of Thomas Norris of Speke Hall, Lancashire...