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Sir Arthur Herbert Dyke Acland, thirteenth baronet (1847–1926) by W. & D. Downey, pubd 1894 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Acland, Sir Arthur Herbert Dyke, thirteenth baronet (1847–1926), politician and educational reformer, was born at Holnicote, near Porlock, Somerset, on 13 October 1847, the third son of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, eleventh baronet (1809–1898), and his first wife, Mary (d. 1851), daughter of ...

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Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, eleventh baronet (1809–1898) by Hills & Saunders © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Acland, Sir Thomas Dyke, eleventh baronet (1809–1898), politician and educational reformer, born at Killerton, Devon, on 25 May 1809, was the eldest son of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland (1787–1871), politician and philanthropist, and his wife, Lydia Elizabeth (d. 1856), only daughter of ...

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Armstrong, Henry Edward (1848–1937), chemist and educational reformer, was born on 6 May 1848 at Caroline Place, Avenue Road, Lewisham, Kent, the eldest son of Richard Armstrong (1827–1884), a commission agent and importer, and his wife, Mary Ann Biddle. He was educated at ...

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Henry Edward Armstrong (1848–1937) by Thomas Cantrell Dugdale, 1927 © reserved; photograph Royal Institution, London / Bridgeman Art Library

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Benezet, Anthony [formerly Antoine] (1713–1784), educational reformer and abolitionist, was born on 31 January 1713 in St Quentin, Picardy, France. In 1715 his wealthy protestant parents, Jean Étienne Benezet (1683–1751) and Judith de la Méjenelle (1693–1765), fled to Rotterdam to escape religious persecution, bribing the border guard with a bag of gold. After three months the ...

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Brereton, Joseph Lloyd (1822–1901), educational reformer, was born on 19 October 1822 at Little Massingham rectory, Norfolk, the third son of eleven children of Charles David Brereton (1790–1868), for forty-seven years rector of Little Massingham, and his wife, Frances (d. 1880), daughter of ...

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W. E. A. Axon

revised by M. C. Curthoys

Brotherton, Edward (1814–1866), educational reformer, was born at Manchester. He had at least two sisters, Martha and Elizabeth, and a brother, Joseph Hamilton Brotherton, all of whom settled in the United States. Early in life he entered the silk trade, and became a manufacturer. He wrote frequently as ...

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Burton, Mary (bap. 1819, d. 1909), educational and social reformer, was baptized on 7 February 1819 in Aberdeen, the youngest of four children of William Kinninmont Burton (d. 1819), lieutenant in the Rutlandshire fencible cavalry, and Elizabeth Paton (d. 1848), daughter of ...

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Clarke, John (bap. 1687, d. 1734), schoolmaster and educational reformer, born at York, was baptized on 21 August 1687 at South Stainley, Yorkshire, the son of John Clarke, innkeeper of York. His early schooling in York was followed by his admission as sizar to ...

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Connelly [née Peacock], Cornelia Augusta (1809–1879), Roman Catholic nun and educational reformer, was born on 15 January 1809 at 1 Filbert Street, Philadelphia, USA, the youngest of the six surviving children of Ralph Peacock (c.1767–1818), a merchant and land speculator who had emigrated from ...

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Delany, William (1835–1924), Jesuit priest and educationist, was born at Leighlin Bridge, co. Carlow, on 4 June 1835, the son of John Delany, baker, and his wife, Mary, née Brennan. He was the second of ten children, five of whom survived to maturity—two boys and three girls. His formal education was at the local primary school and, from 1845 to 1851, at ...

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Dell, William (d. 1669), ejected minister and educational reformer, was admitted sizar at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in April 1624; there is no reliable information about his early life. He graduated BA in 1628 and MA in 1631, subsequently becoming a fellow. With the support of ...

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George Dixon (1820–1898) by Henry John Whitlock © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Dixon, George (1820–1898), educational reformer and politician, was born on 21 July 1820 at Gomersal, Yorkshire, the fourth son in the family of five sons and three daughters of Abraham Dixon (d. 1850), merchant and inventor in the woollen textile industry, of ...

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Douglas, John (c. 1500–1574), archbishop of St Andrews and educational reformer, was born in Longnewton, Roxburghshire, the son of Robert Douglas. His cousin Hugh Douglas was the son of William Douglas of Bon-Jedburgh, but nothing else is known of John Douglas before he matriculated in ...

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Desiderius Erasmus (c. 1467–1536) by Hans Holbein the younger, 1523 private collection. Photograph: Photographic Survey, Courtauld Institute of Art, London

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Erasmus, Desiderius (c. 1467–1536), humanist scholar and reformer, was born in Rotterdam during the night of 27–28 October in the late 1460s—a year about 1467 seems plausible. He was illegitimate, a circumstance that doubtless contributed to the uncertainty attending all record of his origins, family name, and early life. The source of much information is the ...

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Eveleigh, John (1748–1814), college head and university reformer, was born on 22 February 1748, and baptized on 17 March 1748 at Winkleigh, Devon, the eldest of the three sons of John Eveleigh (1716?–1770), rector of Winkleigh, and his wife, Martha, daughter of John Scobell...