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Benezet, Anthony [formerly Antoine] (1713–1784), educational reformer and abolitionist, was born on 31 January 1713 in St Quentin, Picardy, France. In 1715 his wealthy protestant parents, Jean Étienne Benezet (1683–1751) and Judith de la Méjenelle (1693–1765), fled to Rotterdam to escape religious persecution, bribing the border guard with a bag of gold. After three months the ...

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Burton, Mary (bap. 1819, d. 1909), educational and social reformer, was baptized on 7 February 1819 in Aberdeen, the youngest of four children of William Kinninmont Burton (d. 1819), lieutenant in the Rutlandshire fencible cavalry, and Elizabeth Paton (d. 1848), daughter of ...

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Edinburgh Seven (act. 1869–1873), a group of women who attempted to gain professional qualifications in medicine from the University of Edinburgh, were led by Sophia Jex-Blake (1840–1912). The 'Septem contra Edinam', as Jex-Blake sometimes styled them, were the core of the small band of women who battled, ultimately unsuccessfully, to obtain medical degrees from ...

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Heywood, James (1810–1897), politician, university reformer, and philanthropist, was born in Everton, Liverpool, on 28 May 1810, the fifth son of Nathaniel Heywood, a partner in the Manchester bank of Benjamin Heywood & Sons, and his wife, Ann, daughter of Thomas Percival, MD FRS...

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