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Archer, Georgina (1827–1882), promoter of women's education, was born on 27 September 1827 in Edinburgh, the youngest of the four children of Andrew Archer, dentist, and his wife, Ann, née Cunningham. The family consisted of two sons and two daughters. The eldest, James Archer (1822–1904)...

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Astell, Mary (1666–1731), philosopher and promoter of women's education, was born in Newcastle upon Tyne on 12 November 1666, the first of two surviving children of Peter Astell (1638–1678), coal merchant, and his wife, Mary, daughter of George Errington, also a coal merchant in ...

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Bishop, Caroline Garrison (1846–1929), promoter of kindergarten education, was born on 18 October 1846 at St Leonards, Heavitree, Devon, daughter of the Revd Francis Bishop, minister in the Unitarian church, and his first wife, Lavinia, daughter of Isaac Solly. Her mother died when she was six and her father remarried. ...

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Bostock, Elizabeth Anne [Eliza] (1817–1898), promoter of women's education, was born in Liverpool, the only child of John Bostock (1772–1846), doctor of medicine, and his wife, Anne Yates (d. 1863). Her father, a Unitarian, assumed much of the responsibility for her early education. He taught her Italian, took her to lectures given by ...

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Bulley [married name Brooke], (Agnes) Amy (1852–1939), promoter of women's education and women's trade unionism, was born on 20 April 1852 at Liscard, New Brighton, Cheshire, one of four sons and ten daughters of Samuel Marshall Bulley (1811–1880), cotton broker, and Mary Rachel Bulley, ...

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Campbell [née Black], Janet [Jessie] (1827–1907), promoter of higher education for women in Scotland, was born in Cross-Arthurlie, Renfrewshire, on 26 March 1827, the eldest child of James Black (1799?–1831) of Cross-Arthurlie, the owner of a bleaching business, and his wife, Eliza Taylor (1803?–1859)...

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Carbutt [married name Herford], Louisa (1832–1907), schoolmistress and educational pioneer, was born on 25 September 1832 at Altona, near Hamburg, Germany, the daughter of Francis Carbutt (1792–1874) and his wife, Louise Petronella, daughter of George Henry Penecke of Copenhagen. Sir Edward Hamer Carbutt, ...

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Anne Jemima Clough (1820–1892) by Sir William Blake Richmond, 1882 The Principal and Fellows, Newnham College, Cambridge

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Clough, Anne Jemima (1820–1892), college head and promoter of women's education, was born in Liverpool on 20 January 1820, the third child and only daughter of James Butler Clough (1784–1844), cotton merchant, and his wife, Anne (d. 1860), daughter of John Perfect...

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Coleridge, Alice Mary (1846–1907), promoter of girls' schools, was born on 27 March 1846 at the Manor House, Ottery St Mary, Devon, the youngest daughter by thirteen years of Francis George Coleridge (1794–1854), a solicitor and kinsman of S. T. Coleridge, and his wife, ...

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Collet, Clara Elizabeth (1860–1948), civil servant and promoter of women's education and employment, was born at Sunny Bank, Hornsey Lane, Islington, London, on 10 September 1860, the second daughter and fourth child of Collet Dobson Collet (1812–1898), a prominent champion of press freedom and editor of ...

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Cotta, Alix von (1842–1931), promoter of women's higher education, was born in Brunswick, the eldest of three daughters of Carl Berhard von Cotta (1808–1879) and Ilsabe Ida von Orges (1812–1902). She grew up in Freiberg, Saxony, where her father was professor of geology at the internationally renowned mining academy there. Her mother was 'gifted and charming' with a 'wide range of sympathies and interests' (...

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Croudace, Camilla Mary Julia (1844–1926), supporter of education for women, was born on 29 January 1844 at Marsh House, Homerton, Middlesex, the daughter of Thomas Croudace and his wife, Anne Hester Vignoles. She spent part of her early life in Kiev with her mother, her older brother, and her grandfather, the civil engineer ...

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Crudelius [née McLean], Mary (1839–1877), promoter of women's education, was born on 23 February 1839 at Henry Street, Bury, Lancashire, the eldest daughter of William McLean, a draper, and his wife, Mary, née Alexander. Both her parents were Scottish, with roots in ...

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Davies, (Sarah) Emily (1830–1921), suffragist and promoter of higher education for women, was born on 22 April 1830 in Southampton, the fourth child and second daughter of John Davies DD (1795–1861) and his wife, Mary Hopkinson (d. 1886), the daughter of a businessman from ...

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(Sarah) Emily Davies (1830–1921) by Rudolph Lehmann, 1880 The Mistress and Fellows, Girton College, Cambridge

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Dendy, Mary (1855–1933), promoter of residential schools for mentally handicapped people, was born on 28 January 1855 at Bryncelyn, Mold, Flintshire, the second child of John Dendy (1828–1894), Unitarian minister, and his wife, Sarah Beard (1831–1922), eldest daughter of John Relly Beard. Her siblings included ...

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William Fox (1736–1826) by Samuel Freeman, pubd 1827 © reserved

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Fox, William (1736–1826), founder of the Sunday School Society, was born at Clapton, Gloucestershire, on 14 February 1736, the youngest of the eight children of James Fox (d. 1738/9), tenant farmer on Clapton Manor estate. Left fatherless, the eldest son took over the farm, while ...

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Galloway, Janet Anne (1841–1909), promoter of higher education for women in Scotland, was born at Birdston Cottage, Birdston, parish of Campsie, Stirlingshire, on 10 October 1841, the elder daughter of Alexander Galloway (1802–1883), estate factor, and his wife, Anne, née Bald, of Carsebridge, Alloa...