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Sir Arthur Herbert Dyke Acland, thirteenth baronet (1847–1926) by W. & D. Downey, pubd 1894 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Acland, Sir Arthur Herbert Dyke, thirteenth baronet (1847–1926), politician and educational reformer, was born at Holnicote, near Porlock, Somerset, on 13 October 1847, the third son of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, eleventh baronet (1809–1898), and his first wife, Mary (d. 1851), daughter of ...

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Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, eleventh baronet (1809–1898) by Hills & Saunders © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Acland, Sir Thomas Dyke, eleventh baronet (1809–1898), politician and educational reformer, born at Killerton, Devon, on 25 May 1809, was the eldest son of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland (1787–1871), politician and philanthropist, and his wife, Lydia Elizabeth (d. 1856), only daughter of ...

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Alexander, Alexander [Alick] (1849–1928), promoter of physical education, was born in Liverpool on 14 May 1849, the second son of W. C. Alexander, a chief carpenter in the Royal Navy who had settled in Liverpool at the end of his period of service. Following an education at ...

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Archer, Georgina (1827–1882), promoter of women's education, was born on 27 September 1827 in Edinburgh, the youngest of the four children of Andrew Archer, dentist, and his wife, Ann, née Cunningham. The family consisted of two sons and two daughters. The eldest, James Archer (1822–1904)...

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Armstrong, Henry Edward (1848–1937), chemist and educational reformer, was born on 6 May 1848 at Caroline Place, Avenue Road, Lewisham, Kent, the eldest son of Richard Armstrong (1827–1884), a commission agent and importer, and his wife, Mary Ann Biddle. He was educated at ...

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Henry Edward Armstrong (1848–1937) by Thomas Cantrell Dugdale, 1927 © reserved; photograph Royal Institution, London / Bridgeman Art Library

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Astell, Mary (1666–1731), philosopher and promoter of women's education, was born in Newcastle upon Tyne on 12 November 1666, the first of two surviving children of Peter Astell (1638–1678), coal merchant, and his wife, Mary, daughter of George Errington, also a coal merchant in ...

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Badham, Charles (1813–1884), classical scholar and promoter of education, was born on 18 July 1813 at Ludlow, Shropshire, the fourth son of Charles Badham (1780–1845), regius professor of medicine in the University of Glasgow from 1827 and amateur classicist, and his first wife, ...

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Benezet, Anthony [formerly Antoine] (1713–1784), educational reformer and abolitionist, was born on 31 January 1713 in St Quentin, Picardy, France. In 1715 his wealthy protestant parents, Jean Étienne Benezet (1683–1751) and Judith de la Méjenelle (1693–1765), fled to Rotterdam to escape religious persecution, bribing the border guard with a bag of gold. After three months the ...

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Bostock, Elizabeth Anne [Eliza] (1817–1898), promoter of women's education, was born in Liverpool, the only child of John Bostock (1772–1846), doctor of medicine, and his wife, Anne Yates (d. 1863). Her father, a Unitarian, assumed much of the responsibility for her early education. He taught her Italian, took her to lectures given by ...

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Brereton, Joseph Lloyd (1822–1901), educational reformer, was born on 19 October 1822 at Little Massingham rectory, Norfolk, the third son of eleven children of Charles David Brereton (1790–1868), for forty-seven years rector of Little Massingham, and his wife, Frances (d. 1880), daughter of ...

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W. E. A. Axon

revised by M. C. Curthoys

Brotherton, Edward (1814–1866), educational reformer, was born at Manchester. He had at least two sisters, Martha and Elizabeth, and a brother, Joseph Hamilton Brotherton, all of whom settled in the United States. Early in life he entered the silk trade, and became a manufacturer. He wrote frequently as ...

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Buckton [née Williams], Catherine Mary (1826/7–1904), promoter of household science teaching, was born in London, the daughter of John Morgan Williams, a surgeon, later of Llandaff, Glamorgan. On 22 March 1849 she married Joseph Buckton, a Leeds cloth merchant, with whom she had a son and a daughter. She was a founder member of the ...

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Burton, Mary (bap. 1819, d. 1909), educational and social reformer, was baptized on 7 February 1819 in Aberdeen, the youngest of four children of William Kinninmont Burton (d. 1819), lieutenant in the Rutlandshire fencible cavalry, and Elizabeth Paton (d. 1848), daughter of ...

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Campbell [née Black], Janet [Jessie] (1827–1907), promoter of higher education for women in Scotland, was born in Cross-Arthurlie, Renfrewshire, on 26 March 1827, the eldest child of James Black (1799?–1831) of Cross-Arthurlie, the owner of a bleaching business, and his wife, Eliza Taylor (1803?–1859)...

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Carbutt [married name Herford], Louisa (1832–1907), schoolmistress and educational pioneer, was born on 25 September 1832 at Altona, near Hamburg, Germany, the daughter of Francis Carbutt (1792–1874) and his wife, Louise Petronella, daughter of George Henry Penecke of Copenhagen. Sir Edward Hamer Carbutt, ...

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Clarke [née Nicolls], Edith (1844–1926), promoter of household science teaching, was born on 27 October 1844 at Shrewsbury House, Shooters Hill, Kent, daughter of Lieutenant Edward Nicolls RN (d. 1844) and his wife, Mary Ellen Peacock. She was the maternal granddaughter of ...

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Clarke, John (bap. 1687, d. 1734), schoolmaster and educational reformer, born at York, was baptized on 21 August 1687 at South Stainley, Yorkshire, the son of John Clarke, innkeeper of York. His early schooling in York was followed by his admission as sizar to ...