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Bernal, Martin Gardiner (1937–2013), Sinologist and ancient historian, was born on 10 March 1937 at 35 Downshire Hill, Hampstead, London, the son of (John) Desmond Bernal (1901–1971), physicist, and Margaret Emilia Gardiner (1904–2005), arts patron. His mother, the daughter of the Egyptologist Sir Alan Gardiner...

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Brunt, Peter Astbury (1917–2005), ancient historian, was born on 23 June 1917, at 16 Highfield Road, Coulsdon, Surrey, the only child of Samuel Brunt, Wesleyan Methodist minister, and his wife, Gladys Eileen, née Blewett. He was educated at Ipswich School, and won an open scholarship in history to ...

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Bury, John Bagnell (1861–1927), classical scholar and historian, was born in co. Monaghan, Ireland, on 16 October 1861. His father, the Revd Edward John Bury, curate of Monaghan, subsequently rector of Clontibert and canon of Clogher, had married Anna Rogers of Monaghan, '...

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John Bagnell Bury (1861–1927) by Walter Stoneman, 1919 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Reginald Hackforth

revised by David Gill

Cornford, Francis Macdonald (1874–1943), classical scholar, was born at Eastbourne, Sussex, on 27 February 1874, the second son of the Revd James Cornford (1840–1900), and his wife, Mary Emma Macdonald. He was educated at St Paul's School under F. W. Walker and at ...

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Francis Macdonald Cornford (1874–1943) by Eric Gill, 1929 © courtesy the Artist's Estate / Bridgeman Art Library; the Master and Fellows, Trinity College, Cambridge

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Frazer, Sir James George (1854–1941), social anthropologist and classical scholar, was born in Blythswood Square, Glasgow, on 1 January 1854, the eldest of the four children of Daniel F. Frazer (1821–1900), leading partner in the long-established firm of chemists Frazer and Green, and his wife, ...

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Sir James George Frazer (1854–1941) by Lafayette, 1926 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Housman, Alfred Edward (1859–1936), poet and classical scholar, was born on 26 March 1859 at Valley House, Fockbury, a hamlet near Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, the first of the seven children (born within the space of ten years) of Edward Housman (1831–1894), solicitor, and his wife, ...

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Alfred Edward Housman (1859–1936) by Francis Dodd, 1926 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Murray, (George) Gilbert Aimé (1866–1957), classical scholar and internationalist, was born in Sydney, Australia, on 2 January 1866, the second son of Sir Terence Aubrey Murray (1810–1873) and his second wife, Agnes Ann, née Edwards (c.1835–1891). Murray's father, a prosperous stock farmer, had been since 1862 president of the legislative council of ...

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(George) Gilbert Aimé Murray (1866–1957) by Elliott & Fry © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Newman, Francis William (1805–1897), classical scholar and moral philosopher, was born at 17 Southampton Street, Bloomsbury Square, London, on 27 June 1805. His father, John Newman (1767–1824), a banker, was of Dutch descent and his mother, Jemima (1772–1836), of Huguenot extraction, was a sister of the paper manufacturer ...

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Francis William Newman (1805–1897) by Herbert Watkins, 1858 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Raper, Robert William (1842–1915), college teacher and founder of university careers service, was born at Llanwenarth, Monmouthshire, on 9 March 1842, the second son of Lieutenant-Colonel Timothy Raper (1790?–1862), of the 19th foot regiment, and his wife, Christian Mary (d. 1858), daughter of ...

Article

F. E. Adcock

revised by Richard Smail

Reid, James Smith (1846–1926), classical scholar and historian, was born at Sorn, Ayrshire, on 3 May 1846, the eldest son of John Reid, schoolmaster, and his wife, Mary Smith. Among collateral relatives on his mother's side he reckoned Adam Smith, author of The Wealth of Nations...

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Sandbach, Francis Henry [Harry] (1903–1991), classical scholar, was born on 23 February 1903 in an Edgbaston nursing home, the elder son of Francis Edward Sandbach (1874–1946), lecturer and subsequently professor of German in the University of Birmingham, and Ethel Bywater (1874–1949), a teacher. From 1914 to 1921 he was at ...

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Sidgwick, Arthur (1840–1920), educationist and classical scholar, was born at Skipton in Yorkshire on 9 April 1840, the fifth of six children of the Revd William Sidgwick (d. 22 May 1841), headmaster of Skipton grammar school, and his wife, Mary (née...

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Sullivan, John Patrick (1930–1993), classical scholar, was born on 13 July 1930 at the Royal Infirmary, Liverpool, the elder son and oldest of three children of Daniel Sullivan (d. 1952), a dock labourer, and his wife, Alice, née Long, who had worked in a cigarette factory before her marriage. Both parents were proud of their Irish roots. It was a close-knit family, and ...

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Thomson, George Derwent (1903–1987), classical scholar, was born at 2 Allison Grove, Dulwich Common, London, on 19 August 1903, the eldest of five children of William Henry Thomson (1862–1929), chartered accountant, and his wife, Minnie, née Clements (1876–1938). His father was the illegitimate son of the legal scholar ...