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Bell, Gertrude Margaret Lowthian (1868–1926), traveller, archaeologist, and diplomatist, was born at Washington Hall, co. Durham, on 14 July 1868, the elder child and only daughter of (Thomas) Hugh Bell (1844–1931), an ironmaster, who succeeded his father as second baronet in 1904, and his first wife, ...

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Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell (1868–1926) by unknown photographer, c. 1900 Getty Images

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A. J. Arbuthnot

revised by Robert Eric Frykenberg

Elliot, Sir Walter (1803–1887), East India Company servant and archaeologist, was born on 16 January 1803, the second but eldest surviving of the eight sons and three daughters of James Elliot (1772–1855) of Wolfelee, Roxburghshire, and his wife, Caroline (1777–1824), youngest daughter of ...

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Sir Austen Henry Layard (1817–1894) by George Frederic Watts, 1848 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Layard, Sir Austen Henry (1817–1894), archaeologist and politician, was born in a Paris hotel on 5 March 1817, the eldest of four children of Henry Peter John Layard, formerly of the Ceylon civil service, and Marianne, daughter of Nathaniel Austen, banker, of Ramsgate...

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Raistrick, Arthur (1896–1991), industrial archaeologist and pacifist, was born in Saltaire, Yorkshire, on 16 August 1896, the son of George Raistrick, engineer, and his wife, Minnie, née Bell. This model industrial village had been built by manufacturer Titus Salt, in whose mill Arthur Raistrick's...

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Arthur Raistrick (1896–1991) by W. R. Mitchell © W. R. Mitchell MBE

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Rassam, Hormuzd (1826–1910), archaeologist and civil servant, was born in Mosul, Mesopotamia, then within the Ottoman empire, afterwards in northern Iraq. He was the youngest son and eighth child of Antun and Theresa Rassam, who were members of Mosul's Christian Chaldean community, his father being archdeacon of the uniate ...

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Hormuzd Rassam (1826–1910) by Lock & Whitfield, pubd 1881 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

George Stronach

revised by Roger T. Stearn

Smith, Sir Robert Murdoch (1835–1900), archaeologist and diplomatist, second son of Hugh Smith (d. 1856), surgeon and medical practitioner at Kilmarnock, and his wife, Jean, née Murdoch, was born at Bank Street, Kilmarnock, on 18 August 1835. He was educated at Kilmarnock Academy...

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Talbot, James, fourth Baron Talbot of Malahide in the peerage of Ireland, and first Baron Talbot de Malahide in the peerage of the United Kingdom (1805–1883), politician and archaeologist, was born at Tiverton, Devon, on 22 November 1805, the son of James Talbot, ...

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Warren, Sir Charles (1840–1927), army officer, police commissioner, and archaeologist, was born on 7 February 1840 at Fairview House, Bangor, Caernarvonshire, the second son of Major-General Sir Charles Warren (1798–1866) and his first wife, Mary Anne (d. 1846), daughter of William Hughes...

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Sir Charles Warren (1840–1927) by Barraud, pubd 1888 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Young, Gerard Mackworth- (1884–1965), administrator in India and archaeologist, was born in London on 7 April 1884, the eldest of the four sons of Sir William Mackworth Young (1840–1924), lieutenant-governor of the Punjab in 1897–1902, and his second wife, Frances Mary (d...