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Bateson, Gregory (1904–1980), anthropologist and communications theorist, was born on 9 May 1904 at Grantchester, Cambridgeshire, the youngest of three sons of William Bateson (1861–1926), zoologist and geneticist, and his wife, (Caroline) Beatrice (1870?–1941), daughter of Arthur Durham and his wife, Mary Ellis...

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Brown, Alfred Reginald Radcliffe- (1881–1955), social anthropologist, was born Alfred Reginald Brown on 17 January 1881 at 39 Farm Road, Aston, Warwickshire, the second son and last of three children of Alfred Brown (1834–1886), manufacturer's clerk, and his second wife, Hannah (c...

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Edward Clodd (1840–1930) by Emil Otto Hoppé, c. 1909 by permission of the E. O. Hoppé Trust, Curatorial Assistance, Inc., Los Angeles; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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E. S. P. Haynes

revised by J. F. M. Clark

Clodd, Edward (1840–1930), banker and popular anthropologist, was born at Queen Street, Margate, Kent, on 1 July 1840, the eldest child of Edward Clodd and his wife, Susan Parker. Of his six brothers and sisters four died in infancy and two did not survive childhood. His father was a ...

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Dingwall, Eric John (1891?–1986), anthropologist and librarian, was born in Nuwara Eliya, Ceylon, the only son of Alexander Harvey Dingwall (1860–1936), a tea planter, and his wife, Catherine Emily, formerly Marson (1863?–1932). He seems not to have known his date of birth, but for official purposes would put down 21 April 1891. His death certificate gives his year of birth as 1890. He was educated at ...

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Dover, Cedric Cyril (1904–1961), entomologist, anthropologist, and poet, was born on 11 April 1904 in Calcutta to Eurasian parents, Percy and Sophy Dover. He was a descendant of Colonel James Skinner, the founder of what became Skinner's Horse, himself born to a Scottish father and a ...

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Firth, Sir Raymond William (1901–2002), anthropologist, was born on 25 March 1901 in Remuera, Auckland, New Zealand, the elder son and eldest of three children of Wesley Hugh Bourne Firth (1872/3–1977), a builder, and his wife, Marie Elizabeth Jane, née Cartmill. His sister died in infancy....

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Sir Raymond William Firth (1901–2002) by Walter Bird, 1966 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Frazer, Sir James George (1854–1941), social anthropologist and classical scholar, was born in Blythswood Square, Glasgow, on 1 January 1854, the eldest of the four children of Daniel F. Frazer (1821–1900), leading partner in the long-established firm of chemists Frazer and Green, and his wife, ...

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Sir James George Frazer (1854–1941) by Lafayette, 1926 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Gellner, Ernest André (1925–1995), social philosopher and anthropologist, was born on 9 December 1925 in Paris, the elder of two children of Jewish parents, Rudolf Gellner (1897–1987), a lawyer, and his wife, Anna, née Fantl (1894–1954), both from Czechoslovakia. The family returned to ...

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Ernest André Gellner (1925–1995) by Geoff Howard, 1979 Geoff Howard / Camera Press, London

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Gough [married names Miller, Aberle], (Eleanor) Kathleen (1925–1990), social anthropologist and feminist, was born on 16 August 1925 at Hunsingore, near Wetherby, Yorkshire, daughter and youngest child of Albert Gough (1888–1970) and his second wife, Eleanor, née Umpleby (1892–1965), a devout Methodist who sang and recited in local chapels. Her father became village blacksmith in 1914 and played a major role in introducing combines to ...

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Hogbin, Herbert Ian Priestley (1904–1989), anthropologist, was born Herbert William Hogbin on 17 December 1904 in Bawtry, Yorkshire, the first son and eldest of three children of Herbert Hogbin (1880–1940), landscape gardener, and his wife, Edith Fanny Smart (b. 1882). The family emigrated to ...

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Leach, Sir Edmund Ronald (1910–1989), social anthropologist, was born in Sidmouth, Devon, on 7 November 1910, the second son and youngest of three children of William Edmund Leach, part owner and sometime chairman of sugar plantations and a factory in northern Argentina, and his wife, ...

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Sir Edmund Ronald Leach (1910–1989) by David Hockney, 1971 © David Hockney / King's College, Cambridge

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Bronisław Kasper Malinowski (1884–1942) by Samuel Kravitt, c. 1939–40 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Malinowski, Bronisław Kasper (1884–1942), anthropologist, was born on 7 April 1884 in Cracow, Galicia (then part of the Austro-Hungarian empire, now Poland), the only child of Lucjan (Lucian) Feliks Jan Malinowski (1839–1898) and Józefa Eleonora Zenosia Malinowska, née Łącka (1848–1918). Both parents were of noble descent (...

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Needham, Rodney (1923–2006), anthropologist, was born Rodney Needham Green on 15 May 1923 at The Limes, Belle Grove Road, Welling, Bexley, Kent, the only son and eldest of three children of Horace Edward Green, a clerk in the War Office (later an official in the ...

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Romanes, George John [pseuds. Physicus, Metaphysicus] (1848–1894), evolutionary biologist, was born in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, on 20 May 1848, the third son of the Revd George Romanes and Isabella Gair Smith. His father, who taught Greek at the small university in ...