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Alexander, Sir Kenneth John Wilson [Ken] (1922–2001), economist, university administrator, and public servant, was born on 14 March 1922 at 12 Kilmaurs Terrace, Edinburgh, the only son of William Wilson Alexander (1888–1930), lawyer, and his wife, Mary Logan Grahame, née Wilson (1888–1975), tailoress. He won a scholarship to ...

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Beales, Hugh Lancelot (1889–1988), economist and social historian, born at Sedbergh, Yorkshire, on 18 February 1889, was the son of William Beales, a Wesleyan Methodist minister, and his wife, Zaida Mary Ann Elizabeth Scantlebury Green. He grew up in a radical political household. He was sent to the ...

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Blaug, Mark (1927–2011), economist and historian of economics, was born Norbert Blauaug on 3 April 1927 in The Hague, Netherlands, the second son of Berl Blauaug (later Bernard Blaug), raincoat manufacturer, and his wife, Sarah, née Toeman. His father had Austro-Hungarian nationality and his mother was English. They were a Jewish family but ...

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Mark Blaug (1927–2011) by unknown photographer, 1970s photograph reproduced by courtesy of The British Academy

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Cohen, Ruth Louisa (1906–1991), economist and college head, was born on 10 November 1906 in Bushey Heath, Hertfordshire, the second child and elder daughter of the two daughters and three sons of Walter Samuel Cohen (1870–1960), barrister and financier, and his wife, Lucy Margaret, ...

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Fawcett, Henry (1833–1884), economist and politician, was born on 26 August 1833 in Salisbury, Wiltshire, the third of four children of William Fawcett (1793–1887), a draper, and his wife, Mary Cooper (d. 1889), the daughter of a local solicitor. Henry's brothers, William...

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Hayek, Friedrich August (1899–1992), economist and political philosopher, was born in Vienna on 8 May 1899, the eldest of three sons of August Josef Gustav von Hayek (1871–1928), physician and botanist, and his wife, Felicitas Johanna Valerie, née von Juraschek (1875–1967), daughter of ...

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Friedrich August Hayek (1899–1992) by Ramsey & Muspratt, 1940s © National Portrait Gallery, London

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[Anon.]

revised by R. D. Collison Black

Ingram, John Kells (1823–1907), scholar and economist, born at the rectory of Temple Carne, near Pettigo, Donegal, on 7 July 1823, was the eldest son of William Ingram (1771–1829), then curate of the parish, and his wife, Elizabeth Cooke. Thomas Dunbar Ingram was his younger brother. The family was descended from Scottish Presbyterians who settled in ...

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John Kells Ingram (1823–1907) by Sarah Purser, 1890 © Estate of Sarah Henrietta Purser. Photograph reproduced with the kind permission of the Trustees of the National Museums & Galleries of Northern Ireland

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Kalecki, Michał (1899–1970), economist and policy adviser, was born on 22 June 1899 into a Polish-Jewish family in Łódź, now in Poland, then occupied by Russia. He was the only child of Abram Kalecki (d. 1933), the owner of a small cotton mill, and his wife, ...

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Layton, Walter Thomas, first Baron Layton (1884–1966), economist and newspaper proprietor, was born in Chelsea, London, on 15 March 1884, the second son and third of the four children of Alfred John Layton (1849–1934), of The Chalet, Fulham Park Road, London, and his wife, ...

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James Maitland, eighth earl of Lauderdale (1759–1839) by Thomas Phillips, 1806 Scottish National Portrait Gallery

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Maitland, James, eighth earl of Lauderdale (1759–1839), politician and political economist, was born on 26 January 1759 at Hatton House, Ratho, Edinburghshire. He was the eldest surviving son of the six sons and six daughters of James Maitland, seventh earl of Lauderdale (1718–1789)...

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Rita McWilliams Tullberg

Marshall, Alfred (1842–1924), economist, was born on 26 July 1842 at 66 Charlotte Road, Bermondsey, London, the second son of William Marshall (1812–1901), clerk at the Bank of England, and his wife, Rebecca Oliver (1817–1878), daughter of Thomas Oliver, butcher. He had two brothers and two sisters....

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Alfred Marshall (1842–1924) by Sir William Rothenstein, 1908 by courtesy of the Estate of Sir William Rothenstein; collection St John's College, Cambridge

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Marshall [née Paley], Mary (1850–1944), economist, was born on 24 October 1850 in the village of Ufford, near Stamford, the second daughter of the Revd Thomas Paley and his wife, Judith Wormald. She was the great-granddaughter of Archdeacon William Paley. Her sister and a younger brother also survived into adulthood....

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Meade, James Edward (1907–1995), economist, was born on 23 June 1907 at Broome, Swanage, Dorset, the second child and only son of Charles Hippisley Meade (b. 1866/7?) and his wife, Kathleen Cotton (Kitty), née Stapleton (b. 1884), daughter of George Cotton Stapleton...

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James Edward Meade (1907–1995) by Walter Stoneman, 1951 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London