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Beales, Hugh Lancelot (1889–1988), economist and social historian, born at Sedbergh, Yorkshire, on 18 February 1889, was the son of William Beales, a Wesleyan Methodist minister, and his wife, Zaida Mary Ann Elizabeth Scantlebury Green. He grew up in a radical political household. He was sent to the ...

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Beveridge, William Henry, Baron Beveridge (1879–1963), social reformer and economist, was born at Rangpur in Bengal on 5 March 1879.

Beveridge was the second child and elder son of ...

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Eden, Sir Frederick Morton, second baronet (1766–1809), insurance company manager and writer on the state of the poor, was born at Ashtead, Surrey, the eldest son of Sir Robert Eden (created a baronet in 1776), governor of Maryland, and grandson of Sir Robert Eden, ...

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Elmhirst, Leonard Knight (1893–1974), agricultural economist and philanthropist, was born on 6 June 1893 at Laxton, Yorkshire, the second of eight sons and nine children of the Revd William Heaton Elmhirst, clergyman, of Laxton, subsequently owner of the Elmhirst estate, Worsbrough Dale, Yorkshire...

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Hall, Charles (1745?–1825?), social and economic theorist, was probably the Carolus Hall, Anglus, who became a student at the University of Leiden on 30 May 1765. He later took the degree of MD, and in 1785 published The Medical Family Instructor, with an Appendix on Canine Madness...

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Hilton, John (1880–1943), social scientist and broadcaster, was born at 14 Rumworth Street, Bolton, Lancashire, on 28 December 1880, the first son and the last of seven children of John Hilton (b. 1841) and his wife, Mary, née Bowden. He avoided much of the poverty that the rest of his family had had to endure. His father had risen steadily from spindle polisher to become ...

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Hobson, John Atkinson (1858–1940), social theorist and economist, was born on 6 July 1858 at Iron Gate, Derby, the second son of William Hobson (1825–1897), founder, editor, and part proprietor of the Derbyshire Advertiser and twice mayor of Derby, and his wife, Josephine Atkinson...

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John Atkinson Hobson (1858–1940) by unknown photographer British Library of Political and Economic Science

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Howlett, John (1731–1804), economist and writer on the poor, was the son of John Howlett of Bedworth, Warwickshire. Educated at the University of Oxford, he matriculated from St Edmund Hall in 1749, gaining his BA from St John's College in 1755. He later obtained the degrees MA (1795) and BD (1796) from ...

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Kinnersley, David John (1926–2004), economist and public servant, was born on 28 May 1926 at 83 Southbourne Grove, Westcliff-on-Sea, Essex, the elder child and only son of Arthur Ernest Kinnersley (1885–1953), auctioneer and estate agent, and his second wife, Doris Muriel, née Angier (1902–1982)...

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John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Mill, John Stuart (1806–1873), philosopher, economist, and advocate of women's rights, was born on 20 May 1806 at 13 Rodney Street, Pentonville, London. He was the eldest of the nine children of the Scottish-born utilitarian philosopher and Benthamite reformer James Mill (1773–1836), and his wife, ...

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Poekrich [Pockrich], Richard (1696/7–1759), inventor of musical glasses and social and economic reformer, was born in Aghnamallagh, near the town of Monaghan, Ireland, and was descended from a Cromwellian planter family which had been granted land in co. Monaghan in the seventeenth century. His father, a landed gentleman also named ...

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Sadler, Michael Thomas (1780–1835), social reformer and political economist, was born on 3 January 1780 at the Old Hall, Doveridge, Snelston, Derbyshire. He was the youngest of the six children of James Sadler (d. 1800?), a gentleman farmer at Doveridge who claimed descent from ...

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Michael Thomas Sadler (1780–1835) by William Robinson, in or before 1830 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Slater, Gilbert (1864–1938), economist and social reformer, was born at 1 Braidwood Terrace, Plymouth, on 27 August 1864, the son of Daniel Slater MA, a schoolmaster, and his wife, Ellen Augusta, née Trevor. He was admitted at St John's College, Cambridge, in 1882 and graduated BA in 1885 as twentieth senior optime in the mathematical tripos. For much of the next twenty years he was engaged in political and social activity. He was an early member of the ...

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Smith, Brian Abel- (1926–1996), economist and social policy analyst, was born on 6 November 1926 at 24 Kensington Court Gardens, London, the younger son of Brigadier-General Lionel Abel Abel-Smith (1870–1946), officer in the Royal Artillery, and his wife, Genevieve Lilac, née Walsh, daughter of ...

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Brian Abel- Smith (1926–1996) by unknown photographer © News International Newspapers Ltd

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Toynbee, Arnold (1852–1883), social reformer and political economist, was born at 18 Savile Row, London, on 23 August 1852, the second son of Joseph Toynbee (1815–1866), an eminent aural surgeon, and his wife, Harriet Holmes. Toynbee owed much in his early years to the influence of his father, who, though he died when his son was only fourteen, had already inspired him with a love of literature and with the foundations of those social ideals which were afterwards the main interest of his life. ...

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Arnold Toynbee (1852–1883) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London