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Acworth, Angus Whiteford (1898–1981), financier and conservationist, was born on 20 October 1898 at Braeside, Shoot Up Hill, Cricklewood, London, the only son and second of the four children of Joseph John Acworth (1853–1927), businessman, and his wife, Marion Whiteford, née Stevenson (1870–1964)...

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Alexander, Sir Kenneth John Wilson [Ken] (1922–2001), economist, university administrator, and public servant, was born on 14 March 1922 at 12 Kilmaurs Terrace, Edinburgh, the only son of William Wilson Alexander (1888–1930), lawyer, and his wife, Mary Logan Grahame, née Wilson (1888–1975), tailoress. He won a scholarship to ...

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Armstrong, William, Baron Armstrong of Sanderstead (1915–1980), civil servant and banker, was born in the Salvation Mothers' Home, Mare Street, Clapton, London, on 3 March 1915, the elder son of William Armstrong, of Stirling, and his wife, Priscilla Hopkins. Both his parents were ...

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William Armstrong, Baron Armstrong of Sanderstead (1915–1980) by Arnold Newman, 1978 Arnold Newman / Getty Images; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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Beales, Hugh Lancelot (1889–1988), economist and social historian, born at Sedbergh, Yorkshire, on 18 February 1889, was the son of William Beales, a Wesleyan Methodist minister, and his wife, Zaida Mary Ann Elizabeth Scantlebury Green. He grew up in a radical political household. He was sent to the ...

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Antonin Besse (1877–1951) by unknown photographer courtesy of St Antony's College, Oxford

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Besse, Antonin (1877–1951), entrepreneur and benefactor, was born on 26 June 1877 at Carcassonne in southern France, the third son and fourth child in the family of four boys and three girls of Pierre Besse, leather merchant, and his wife, Marie Bonnafous. In failing health ...

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Blaug, Mark (1927–2011), economist and historian of economics, was born Norbert Blauaug on 3 April 1927 in The Hague, Netherlands, the second son of Berl Blauaug (later Bernard Blaug), raincoat manufacturer, and his wife, Sarah, née Toeman. His father had Austro-Hungarian nationality and his mother was English. They were a Jewish family but ...

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Mark Blaug (1927–2011) by unknown photographer, 1970s photograph reproduced by courtesy of The British Academy

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Branford, Victor Verasis (1863–1930), sociologist and businessman, was born at 15 West Street, Oundle, Northamptonshire, on 25 September 1863, the eldest surviving son of William Catton Branford (1837–1891), a veterinary surgeon, and Ann Kitchen (1826–1871), the sister of his father's deceased first wife. His father spent two short periods as professor in the veterinary college in ...

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Caine, Sir Michael Harris (1927–1999), businessman, was born at the Hollies Nursing Home, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, on 17 June 1927, the son of Sir Sydney Caine (1902–1991), an official in the Colonial Office and a university administrator, and his wife, Muriel Ann Maud Harris (...

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Edward Clodd (1840–1930) by Emil Otto Hoppé, c. 1909 by permission of the E. O. Hoppé Trust, Curatorial Assistance, Inc., Los Angeles; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

E. S. P. Haynes

revised by J. F. M. Clark

Clodd, Edward (1840–1930), banker and popular anthropologist, was born at Queen Street, Margate, Kent, on 1 July 1840, the eldest child of Edward Clodd and his wife, Susan Parker. Of his six brothers and sisters four died in infancy and two did not survive childhood. His father was a ...

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Cohen, Ruth Louisa (1906–1991), economist and college head, was born on 10 November 1906 in Bushey Heath, Hertfordshire, the second child and elder daughter of the two daughters and three sons of Walter Samuel Cohen (1870–1960), barrister and financier, and his wife, Lucy Margaret, ...

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Cowan, Sir Robert (1932–1993), businessman and public servant, was born on 27 July 1932 at Inverleith, Edinburgh, the youngest child and only son of John McQueen Cowan (1892–1960) and his wife, Adeline May, née Organe (d. 1981). His father, a distinguished botanist on the staff of the ...

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Hubert Kinsman Cudlipp, Baron Cudlipp (1913–1998) by Henri Cartier-Bresson, 1961 © Henri Cartier-Bresson / Magnum Photos; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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Cudlipp, Hubert Kinsman [Hugh], Baron Cudlipp (1913–1998), journalist and publishing executive, was born at 118 Lisvane Street, Cardiff, on 28 August 1913, the youngest son in the family of three sons and one daughter of William Christopher Cudlipp, commercial traveller for a provision merchant, and his wife, ...

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Currie, Bertram Wodehouse (1827–1896), banker, was born on 25 November 1827, at Harley Street, Marylebone, Middlesex, the second son of Raikes Currie (1801–1881), banker and MP for Northampton (1835–57), and his wife, the Hon. Laura Sophia (d. 1869), daughter of the second Baron Wodehouse...

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Durant, Henry William (1902–1982), opinion pollster and market researcher, was born at 42 Drummond Road, Bermondsey, London, on 23 October 1902, the first son and second of the five children of Henry William Durant (1870–1913), general warehouseman and later a foreman in a grain mill, and his wife, ...

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Engels, Friedrich [Frederick] (1820–1895), businessman and revolutionary leader, was born on 28 November 1820 in Barmen, Westphalia, the son of Friedrich Engels (1796–1860), a textile manufacturer, and Elizabeth, née van Haar (1797–1873), the daughter of a schoolmaster of Dutch origin. Frederick (as he came to be known in ...