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Bosanquet, James Whatman (1804–1877), banker and biblical historian, was born on 10 January 1804, the second son of Samuel Bosanquet (1768–1843), banker, and his wife, Laetitia Philippa (1774–1855), daughter of James Whatman of Kent. Samuel Richard Bosanquet was his elder brother. The Bosanquets...

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Brown, Henton (1697/8–1775), Quaker minister and banker, of unknown parentage, was born in London. He was educated by Friends, and in 1718 he married Sarah, of whom further details are unknown, in an Anglican ceremony, contrary to the beliefs of the society. The couple repented this action and their acknowledgement of wrongdoing was accepted by the society on 20 January 1720. The couple had eleven children, many of whom died in infancy....

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Cookman, George (bap. 1774, d. 1856), businessman, lay preacher, and radical politician, was baptized on 20 January 1774 in the church of St Peter in the village of Owthorne, on the east Yorkshire coast, the son of Grimston Cookman, yeoman, and his wife, ...

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Cruttwell, Richard (1776–1846), financial writer and Church of England clergyman, was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, and took the degree of BCL on 13 June 1803. He was at one period chaplain of HMS Trident, and secretary to Rear-Admiral Sir Alexander J. Ball...

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Cunningham, William (1849–1919), economic historian and Church of England clergyman, was born on 29 December 1849 at 50 Queen Street, Edinburgh, the second of three children born to James Cunningham, a lawyer, and his second wife, Elizabeth Boyle Dunlop, youngest daughter of Alexander Dunlop...

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William Cunningham (1849–1919) by William Strang, 1908 Scottish National Portrait Gallery

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Duncan, Henry (1774–1846), Church of Scotland minister and savings bank founder, was born at Lochrutton, Kirkcudbrightshire, on 8 October 1774, the third son of the minister George Duncan (1738–1807) and his first wife, Anne M'Murdo (d. 1824). He was educated at Dumfries Academy...

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Henry Duncan (1774–1846) by David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson, c. 1843–6 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Eveske, Elias l' (d. in or after 1259), financier and leader of the Jewish community in England, was the eldest of the several sons of Benedict l'Eveske of London. Born before 1200, he became a prominent figure during the 1220s, and by the 1230s was firmly established as one of the leading members of the ...

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Frend, William (1757–1841), religious writer and actuary, was born on 22 November 1757 at Canterbury, the second son of George Frend, wine merchant, alderman, and twice mayor of the city, and his wife, Catherine (d. 1763). His mother died when he was five years old, and his father married, on 25 September 1764, ...

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William Frend (1757–1841) by A. Birrell, pubd 1793 (after Sylvester Harding, 1789) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Goldsmid, Sir Isaac Lyon, first baronet (1778–1859), financier and Jewish communal leader, was born in London on 13 January 1778, the eldest of the six children of Asher Goldsmid, a bullion broker, and his wife, Rachel, née Keyser. Asher's father, Aaron, had settled in ...

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Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid, first baronet (1778–1859) by unknown artist Collection University College London; © reserved in the photograph

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Joseph John Gurney (1788–1847) by Charles Edward Wagstaff (after George Richmond, 1836) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Gurney, Joseph John (1788–1847), banker and religious writer, was born on 2 August 1788 at Earlham Hall, Norwich, the eleventh of the twelve children of John Gurney (1749–1809) and Catherine Gurney, née Bell (1754–1792). The Gurneys, Quakers from the mid-seventeenth century, had developed a substantial wool-stapling business and were known for their social concern, evinced, for instance, in ...

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Ingram, Robert Acklom (1763–1809), Church of England clergyman and economist, eldest son of Robert Ingram (1727–1804) and his wife, Catherine, daughter of Richard Acklom, was probably born in Wormingford or Boxted, Essex, and was educated at Dr Thomas Grimwood's school, Dedham, and Queens' College, Cambridge...

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Margulies, Alexander (1902–1991), businessman and patron of the arts, was born in Skalat, Galicia, on 1 July 1902, the son of Marcus Mordecai Margulies (1862–1921) and his wife, Fanny, née Feige (1865–1943). The Margulies were descendants of Rabbi Ephraim Zalman Margulies (1760–1828), who was celebrated for his scholarship and wealth. When the First World War broke out the family took up residence in ...

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Menahem, Elijah [known as Master Elias] (b. in or before 1232?, d. 1284), financier and rabbi, known in royal records as Master Elias, son of Master Mosse of London, was probably born in London not later than 1232. He was one of the six sons of ...

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Sir Moses Haim Montefiore (1784–1885) by Elliott & Fry © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Montefiore, Sir Moses Haim (1784–1885), financier and Jewish community leader, the eldest son of Joseph Elias Montefiore, a London businessman, and Rachel, the daughter of Abraham Lumbroso de Mattos Mocatta, was born in Leghorn, Italy (during a visit there by his parents), on 24 October 1784. On his father's side ...