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Baron, Bernhard (1850–1929), tobacco manufacturer and philanthropist, was born on 5 December 1850 in the Russian town of Brest Litovsk. His parents were both Jewish and he was probably of French descent. In 1867 he emigrated to New York, where he worked in a tobacco factory, sleeping at night in the tobacco sheds; with tobacco lent to him by one of the foremen, he started to manufacture handmade cigarettes. He then moved to ...

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Leopold Bernhard Bonn (1850–1929) by Lienhard & Salzborn Royal National Institute for the Deaf

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Bonn, Leopold Bernhard (1850–1929), banker and philanthropist, was born on 3 August 1850 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, the ninth child of Baruch Bonn, a prominent Jewish banker. He was privately educated. After the annexation of Frankfurt by Prussia in 1866, Bonn applied for denaturalization and moved to ...

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See Burton, Sir Montague Maurice [formerly Meshe David Osinsky]

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Cohen, Hannah Floretta (1875–1946), philanthropist and civil servant, was born at 63 Queen's Gardens, Kensington, London, on 25 May 1875, the only daughter of Sir Benjamin Louis Cohen, baronet (1844–1909). Her father was a great-grandson of Levi Barent Cohen, an Amsterdam merchant who had settled in ...

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Cuffe [née Bischoffsheim], Ellen Odette, countess of Desart (1857–1933), philanthropist and politician, was born at 18 Cornwall Terrace, Marylebone, London, on 1 September 1857, the eldest of two daughters of Henry Louis Bischoffsheim (1829–1908), banker and philanthropist, and his wife, Clara (or Clarissa) Biedermann (1837–1922)...

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Flower [née de Rothschild], Constance, Lady Battersea (1843–1931), philanthropist and author, was born on 9 December 1843, the daughter of Sir Anthony Nathan de Rothschild, baronet (1810–1876) [see under Rothschild, Nathan Mayer], banker and landowner, and Louisa Montefiore (1821–1910) [...

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Hirsch, Clara de [née Clara Bischoffsheim], Baroness de Hirsch (1833–1899), philanthropist, was born in Brussels on 18 June 1833, the daughter of the Jewish banker Raphael Jonathan Bischoffsheim (1808–1883) and his wife, Henrietta Goldschmidt. In 1855 Clara married Baron Maurice de Hirsch (otherwise Moritz von Hirsch) (1831–1896)...

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Hirsch, Maurice de [formerly Moritz von Hirsch], Baron de Hirsch in the Bavarian nobility (1831–1896), businessman and philanthropist, was born on 9 December 1831 in Munich, the third child and oldest son of Joseph von Hirsch (1805–1885) and his wife, Karoline Wertheimer...

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See Kadoorie [formerly Kelly], Lawrence, Baron Kadoorie

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Samuel Lewis (1838–1901) by unknown artist reproduced by permission of Southern Housing Group Limited

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Lewis, Samuel (1838–1901), moneylender and philanthropist, was born on 14 May 1838 at 1 Lower Hurst Street, Birmingham, the elder of the two children of Frederick Lewis (b. c.1801), a dealer, and his wife, Sarah (c.1805–1872). They lived in impoverished slum conditions, and in 1841 his father was imprisoned for debt. On this, and on many other occasions, the family were rescued by benefits provided by the ...

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Lucas [née Goldsmid], Helen (1835–1918), philanthropist and social worker, was born on 10 August 1835, the first of the nine children of Frederick D. Goldsmid (1812–1866), a financier and MP for Honiton, and his wife, Caroline Samuel (1814–1885) of Somerhill, Kent. She married ...

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See Lyons, (Isidore) Jack

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Lyons, (Isidore) Jack (1916–2008), businessman, philanthropist, and convicted fraudster, was born in Leeds on 1 February 1916, the fifth of six children of Samuel Henry Lyons (1883/4–1959), businessman, and his wife, Sophie, née Niman (1885–1971). His immediate elder brother, Bernard Lyons (1913–2008...

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(Isidore) Jack Lyons (1916–2008) by unknown photographer © Stephen Lock / Telegraph Media Group Limited 1996

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Mayer, Sir Robert (1879–1985), patron of music and philanthropist, was born on 5 June 1879 at Mannheim, Germany, the third of the four sons (there was no daughter) of Emil Mayer, hop merchant and later brewer, of Mannheim, and his wife, Lucie Lehmaier...

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Mendes da Costa, Benjamin (1704–1764), philanthropist and merchant, was born in Amsterdam, the son of Luis (Abraham) Henriques Mendes da Costa (1652–1724), merchant, and his wife, Theresa (Judith) Salazar. His parents were the descendants of Iberian Jews who had converted to Christianity in the late middle ages and later found refuge from inquisitorial persecution in ...

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M. Epstein

revised by Geoffrey Alderman

Mocatta, Frederic David (1828–1905), philanthropist, born in London on 16 January 1828, was the elder son in a family of two sons and two daughters of Abraham Mocatta (1797–1880) [see under Mocatta family], a banker. His father was an active member of the movement in ...

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Frederic David Mocatta (1828–1905) by Nadar © National Portrait Gallery, London