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Bailey, Frederick Marshman (1882–1967), explorer and naturalist, elder son of Major (later Lieutenant-Colonel) Frederick Bailey of the Royal Engineers, was born on 3 February 1882 at Lahore, where his father served in the Indian army for a few years. Later his father became head of the Indian ...

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Battye, Aubyn Bernard Rochfort Trevor- (1855–1922), traveller and naturalist, was born at Hever, Kent, on 17 July 1855, the second son in the family of two sons and three daughters of William Wilberforce Battye (1822–1890), rector of Hever, and his wife, Harriet Dorothea (1827–1904)...

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William John Burchell (1781–1863) by Mary Dawson Turner (after John Sell Cotman, 1816) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Burchell, William John (1781–1863), explorer and naturalist, was born in Fulham on 23 July 1781, one of three children and the only son of Matthew Burchell (d. 1828), botanist and the owner of the Fulham nursery. He was educated at Raleigh House Academy, Mitcham, Surrey...

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Carruthers, (Alexander) Douglas Mitchell (1882–1962), explorer and naturalist, was born in London on 4 October 1882, the eldest son of William Mitchell-Carruthers (1853–1931), who took orders in 1886, and his wife, Antonia, daughter of Atkinson Alexander Holden, who had been rector of Hawton, Newark-on-Trent...

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Cheesman, Robert Ernest (1878–1962), explorer and naturalist, was born at Westwell, Kent, on 18 October 1878, the eldest son and second of five children of Robert Cheesman, farmer, and his wife, Florence Maud Tassell. His younger sister, (Lucy) Evelyn Cheesman (1881–1969), became a well-known entomologist, traveller, writer, and broadcaster. ...

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Drake, Charles Frederick Tyrwhitt (1846–1874), naturalist and explorer in the Middle East, the youngest child of Colonel William Montague Tyrwhitt Drake (1785–1848) and Emma Halsey (1806–1897), was born at Amersham, Buckinghamshire, on 2 January 1846. He had two sisters and two brothers, a third brother having died before his birth. He was educated at ...

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Ferguson, William (1820–1887), surveyor and naturalist, was born in late July 1820. Nothing is known of his early life or education. He arrived in Ceylon in December 1839 and entered the Ceylon civil service as a surveyor. A keen observer of nature, his position allowed him to explore many forms of plant and animal life on the island. Botany was his chief interest, but he also devoted attention to reptiles, amphibians, birds, and insects. He did not examine closely the anatomical structures of individual specimens, but he was extremely knowledgeable about their taxonomic history and sent his observations and material collected to other naturalists, notably ...

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(Johann) Georg Adam Forster (1754–1794) by Daniel Beyel (after John Francis Rigaud, exh. RA 1781) [The Forsters [left to right]: Johann Reinhold Forster (1729-1798) and ] by permission of the National Library of Australia / The Rex Nan Kivell Collection

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Forster, (Johann) Georg Adam (1754–1794), traveller and naturalist, was born on 27 November 1754 in Nassenhuben near Danzig in Polish Prussia, the eldest of the six children of Justina Elisabeth, née Nicolai, and (Johann) Reinhold Forster (1729–1798), the local Lutheran pastor...

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James Sligo Jameson (1856–1888) by unknown engraver, pubd 1890 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Jameson, James Sligo (1856–1888), naturalist and traveller in Africa, was born on 17 August 1856 at the Walk House, Alloa, Clackmannanshire, son of Andrew Jameson, a land agent of Irish stock, and his wife, Margaret (d. 1856), daughter of James Cochrane of ...

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Lord, John Keast [pseud. the Wanderer] (1818–1872), naturalist and traveller, was probably born in Cornwall, the son of Edward Lord. He was taken to Tavistock, Devon, with his brother, William Barry Lord, and educated by an uncle named Luscombe, a man of some local position. About 1840 ...

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J. K. Laughton

revised by Elizabeth Baigent

McCormick, Robert (1800–1890), naval surgeon, explorer, and naturalist, born at Runham, near Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, on 22 July 1800, was the only son of Robert McCormick (d. 1817), surgeon in the navy, son of Robert McCormick of Ballyreagh, co. Tyrone, where the family had been settled for several generations. He spent his childhood near ...

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G. C. Boase

revised by Elizabeth Baigent

Oates, Francis (1840–1875), traveller and naturalist, the second of three sons of Edward Oates of Meanwoodside, near Leeds, Yorkshire, and Susan, daughter of Edward Grace of Burley, in the same county, was born at Meanwoodside on 6 April 1840. He matriculated from Christ Church, Oxford...

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Pennant, Thomas (1726–1798), naturalist, traveller, and writer, was born on 14 June 1726 at Downing in the parish of Whitford (sometimes Whiteford), near Holywell, Flintshire, the eldest son of David Pennant (d. 1763), landowner, and Arabella (d. 1744), third daughter of ...

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Thomas Pennant (1726–1798) by John Keyse Sherwin, 1778 (after Thomas Gainsborough, 1776?) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Pentland, Joseph Barclay (1797–1873), naturalist and traveller, was born in Ballybofey, co. Donegal, Ireland, on 17 January 1797. Nothing is known of his early life save that he was educated at the Royal School, Armagh, and at the University of Paris. He became associated with ...

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Joseph Barclay Pentland (1797–1873) by Pierre Jean David D'Angers, 1832 [cast by Ecket Durand] © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Richardson, Sir John (1787–1865), physician, naturalist, and Arctic explorer, was born on 5 November 1787 at 11 Nith Place, Dumfries, Scotland, eldest of the twelve children of Gabriel Richardson and Anne, daughter of Peter Mundell of Dumfries. Gabriel Richardson was a prosperous brewer, provost at one time, and chief magistrate of ...