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Alfonsi, Petrus (fl. 1106–1126), scholar and translator of scientific works, was born in northern Spain, to Jewish parents. He was baptized a Christian on 29 June 1106 in Huesca, Aragon, with the names of the apostle on whose feast day the baptism took place and of his godfather, ...

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Auerbach, Charlotte [Lotte] (1899–1994), geneticist, was born on 14 May 1899 at Krefeld, Germany, the only child of Friedrich (Fritz) Auerbach (1870–1925), public health chemist in Berlin, and his wife, Selma, née Sachs (d. 1955), daughter of a general practitioner from Jauer...

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Ayrton [née Marks], (Phoebe) Sarah [Hertha] (1854–1923), electrical engineer and suffragist, was born Phoebe Sarah Marks on 28 April 1854 at 6 Queen Street, Portsea, Portsmouth, third child of Alice Theresa (d. 1898), seamstress, daughter of Joseph Moss, glass merchant of ...

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Bacharach, Alfred Louis (1891–1966), food scientist and musician, was born in Hampstead, London, on 11 August 1891, the son of Otto Leonhard Bacharach, a stockbroker, of Hampstead, and his wife, Alice Eva Wagner. He lived throughout his life in Hampstead. Bacharach was educated at ...

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Bergel, Franz (1900–1987), biochemist, was born on 13 February 1900 in the Alsergrund quarter of Vienna, the younger child and second son of Moritz Martin Bergel, a Hungarian immigrant and wine merchant, and his wife, Barbara Betty Spitz, daughter of a carpet manufacturer. He was educated at a ...

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Besicovitch, Abram Samoilovitch (1891–1970), mathematician, was born at Berdyansk, on the Sea of Azov, on 24 January 1891, the fourth child of the family of four sons and two daughters of Samoil Abramovitch Besicovitch and his wife, Eva Ilinichna Sauskan. The family was descended from Karaite Jews, a breakaway sect who accepted the written but not the oral Jewish tradition. ...

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Blaschko, Hugh [formerly Karl Felix Hermann] (1900–1993), biochemist and pharmacologist, was born on 4 January 1900 in Friedrichstrasse, Berlin, the only son and second of the three children of Alfred Blaschko (1858–1922), dermatologist and venereologist, and his wife, Johanna (1873–1943), daughter of ...

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Bohm, David Joseph (1917–1992), physicist and philosopher, was born on 20 December 1917 in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, USA, the son of Samuel Bohm, proprietor of a furniture store, and his wife, Freda. Both parents were immigrants from Europe, his father being born in the ...

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Born, Max (1882–1970), physicist, was born on 11 December 1882 at Wallstrasse 8, Breslau, then part of Germany (later Wrocław, Poland), the elder of the two children of Gustav Jakob Born (1851–1900), a professor of anatomy at the University of Breslau, and his first wife, ...

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Brodetsky, Selig (1888–1954), mathematician and Zionist leader, was born on 5 July 1888 at Olviopol, a small town in Ukraine 100 miles north of Odessa, the second son among the thirteen children of Akiva Brodetsky (1864–1942), a synagogue official, and his wife, Adel Prober (1864–1926)...

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Bronowski, Jacob (1908–1974), mathematician, poet, and humanist, was born on 18 January 1908 in Łódź, Poland, the first of the three children of Abram Bronowski, haberdasher, and his wife, Celia Flatto. During the First World War the family lived in Germany, and in 1920 they moved to ...

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Jacob Bronowski (1908–1974) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Cahn, Robert Wolfgang (1924–2007), materials scientist, was born on 9 September 1924 in Fürth, Bavaria, the first of two children of Martin Cahn (1896–1963), accountant and merchant, and his wife, Else, née Heinemann (1896–1962). His family was Jewish, assimilated into the business community. His maternal grandfather, ...

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Robert Wolfgang Cahn (1924–2007) by Godfrey Argent, 1992 © Godfrey Argent Studio

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Caminer, David Tresman (1915–2008), computing systems engineer, was born David Solomon Treisman on 26 June 1915 in Hackney, London, the only son of Henry Jacob (Jack) Treisman (1892–1918), tailor, and his wife, Rachel (Raie), née Simmons (1891–1982), milliner. Following his mother's remarriage, to ...

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See Chain, Sir Ernst Boris

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Sir Ernst Boris Chain (1906–1979) by Wolfgang Suschitzky, 1944 © Wolfgang Suschitzky / National Portrait Gallery, London

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Chain, Sir Ernst Boris (1906–1979), biochemist, was born on 19 June 1906 in Berlin, the only son of the two children of Dr Michael Chain, a Russian-born industrial chemist, and his wife, Margarete Eisner, who was related to Kurt Eisner, the socialist prime minister of ...

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Robert Robinson

revised by K. D. Watson

Copisarow, Maurice (1889–1959), chemist, was born at Biruch in Russia on 16 August 1889, the son of Elkana (Conan) Copisarow, who following military service was a rabbinical scholar, and his wife, Sarah. After emigrating to England in 1908 Copisarow was taken under the wing of ...

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Daniels, Henry Ellis (1912–2000), statistician, was born on 2 October 1912 in London, the second child of Morris Daniels (1889–1953), a salesman, and his wife, Hannah, née Goldberg (1890–1959). His was a Jewish family of Russian (partly Polish and partly Lithuanian) origin. When he was two the family moved to join the Lithuanian branch in ...