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Beaufort, Edmund, first duke of Somerset (c. 1406–1455), magnate and soldier, was the younger brother of John Beaufort, duke of Somerset (1404–1444); John and Edmund were the second and third sons of John Beaufort, marquess of Dorset and of Somerset (c. 1371–1410), who was the eldest son of ...

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Beaufort, John, marquess of Dorset and marquess of Somerset (c. 1371–1410), soldier and administrator, was the first offspring of the liaison between John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (1340–1399), and Katherine Swynford (1350?–1403) [see Katherine, duchess of Lancaster]. He became a staunch supporter of ...

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Beaufort, John, duke of Somerset (1404–1444), magnate and soldier, was the second son of John Beaufort, marquess of Dorset and of Somerset (d. 1410), and Margaret Holland, daughter of Thomas Holland, earl of Kent. He succeeded to the earldom of Somerset on the death of his elder brother, ...

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Beaufort, Thomas, duke of Exeter (1377?–1426), magnate and soldier, was the youngest of the three illegitimate sons of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and Katherine Swynford [see Katherine, duchess of Lancaster]. His brothers were John Beaufort and Henry Beaufort...

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Edward [Edward of Woodstock; known as the Black Prince], prince of Wales and of Aquitaine (1330–1376), heir to the English throne and military commander, was the eldest son of Edward III (1312–1377) and Philippa of Hainault (1310x15?–1369).

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Edward, prince of Wales and of Aquitaine (1330–1376) tomb effigy by kind permission of the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury; photographer: Mrs Mary Tucker

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Henry of Lancaster [Henry of Grosmont], first duke of Lancaster (c. 1310–1361), soldier and diplomat, was the son of Henry, third earl of Lancaster (c. 1280–1345), and Maud Chaworth (d. 1317×22).

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Henry of Lancaster, first duke of Lancaster (c. 1310–1361) manuscript painting, c. 1430 The British Library

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Humphrey [Humfrey or Humphrey of Lancaster], duke of Gloucester [called Good Duke Humphrey] (1390–1447), prince, soldier, and literary patron, was the youngest son of Henry, earl of Derby, later Henry IV, and his first wife, Mary de Bohun (d. 1394). He was protector of ...

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Mortimer, Roger, first earl of March (1287–1330), regent, soldier, and magnate, was the son and heir of Edmund (I) de Mortimer, lord of Wigmore, and his wife, Margaret de Fiennes.

Roger Mortimer was born in April or May 1287. On the death of his father in July 1304 his wardship was granted to ...

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Pole, Richard de la (d. 1525), soldier and claimant to the English throne, sometimes known after 1506 as Blanche Rose, was the fifth son of John de la Pole (1442–1492) and his wife, Elizabeth Plantagenet (1444–1503/4), a sister of Edward IV, and the younger brother of ...

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Robert [called Robert Curthose], duke of Normandy (b. in or after 1050, d. 1134), prince and crusader, was born in the early 1050s, the eldest child of William (II), duke of Normandy (1027/8–1087), afterwards William I (the Conqueror), and his wife, Matilda (d. 1083)...

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Thomas [Thomas of Lancaster], duke of Clarence (1387–1421), prince and soldier, was the second son of Henry IV, born in London in the autumn of 1387 to Mary de Bohun (c.1369–1394), Henry's first wife. As children he and his brothers moved around the ...