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Abbas Hilmi ['Abbās Ḥilmi] II (1874–1944), last khedive of Egypt, was born on 14 July 1874 in Alexandria, Egypt, the son of Muhammad Tawfiq (1852–1892), sixth ruler of Egypt under the dynasty founded in 1811 by his great-great-grandfather Mehmet Ali, and Princess Emine Hanem...

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Abdullah ibn Hussein ['Abd Allāh ibn al-Ḥusayn] (1882–1951), emir of Transjordan and founder of the Hashemite kingdom of Jordan, was born in February 1882 in Mecca in the Ottoman province of Hejaz. He was the second of three sons of Hussein ibn Ali...

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Abu Bakar (1833–1895) by unknown photographer © reserved

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Abu Bakar [Abu Bakar ibni al-Marhum Dato Temenggong Sri Maharaja Tun Ibrahim] (1833–1895), sultan of Johore, was born in Teluk Belanga, Singapore, most probably on 3 February 1833, the eldest son of Daing Ibrahim (1810–1862) and his first wife, Encik Ngah (also known as Tengku Andak)...

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Amanullah Khan (1892–1960), amir of Afghanistan, was born on 2 June 1892 at Paghman, Kabul. He was the third son of Amir (King) Habibullah (d. 1919), but his mother, Ulya Hazrat, was the ‘first queen’. She used her considerable skill and intelligence to prepare him for the throne. However, ...

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See Muhammad Ali Khan Walahjah

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Asaf Jah VII [Osman Ali Khan] (1886–1967), nizam of Hyderabad, was born on 6 April 1886 at Hyderabad city, India, as Osman Ali Khan. He was the eldest son of Mir Mahbub Ali Khan (1866–1911), then the nizam (ruler) of Hyderabad as Asaf Jah VI...

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See Oudh, nawab wazirs of

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Bengal, nawabs of (act. 1756–1793), rulers in India, were formally the subahdars, or governors, of a Mughal province. In reality they were rulers of what since the early eighteenth century had been an effectively autonomous Bengal. That autonomy was to be lost to the British during their lifetimes....

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Farouk [Fārūq] (1920–1965), king of Egypt, was born on 11 February 1920 at the Abdin Palace in Cairo, the official residency of the dynasty founded in 1811 by Mehmet Ali, an Albanian volunteer in the Ottoman army. He was the only son of ...

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Feisal ibn Hussein [Fayṣal ibn Ḥusayn] (1886–1933), king of Iraq, was born on 20 May 1886 at Ta'if, Hejaz, the third of three sons of Hussein ibn Ali (1853–1931) and Abdiyya bint Abdullah (d. 1886). Both parents held the title sherif and were descended from ...

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Hussein ibn Ali (1853–1931), emir of Mecca and founder of the Hashemite kingdom of the Hejaz, was born in Constantinople in 1853, the first son of Ali ibn Muhammad (d. 1861) and Salha. His parents were descendants of the prophet Muhammad, as denoted by their titles sherif and sherifa respectively, and members of the ...

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Karim, Abdul (1862/3–1909), Queen Victoria's Indian secretary, was the son of an Indian Muslim, Sheikh Mohammed Waziruddin of Agra, India, a hospital assistant at Rs60 a month. Records suggest he had an older brother and four sisters, a wife and one child. Having been employed as a vernacular clerk in ...

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Khan, Sir (Muhammad) Hamidullah (1894–1960), nawab of Bhopal, was born on 9 September 1894 in the Sadar Manzir palace, Bhopal, the third son of Nawab Sultan Jahan Begum (1858–1930), the third successive woman to rule the princely state of Bhopal, and ...

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Mehemet von Königstreu, (Georg) Ludwig Maximilian (c. 1660–1726), royal administrator, may have been the son of a Turkish pasha who governed Peloponnesian Greece for the Ottoman empire. His Muslim name was Mehemet, by which he is usually known to posterity.

The legend that he and his fellow royal servant ...

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Mehmet Ali (c. 1769–1849), Ottoman viceroy and founder of the Egyptian royal family, was born in the Macedonian port of Kavalla, though the actual date of his birth has been obscured. Mehmet Ali himself often gave the date as 1769, the year in which both ...

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See Bengal, nawabs of

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See Bengal, nawabs of

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See Bengal, nawabs of

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Muhammad Ali Khan Walahjah (c. 1717–1795), nawab of Arcot, was born the third of five sons of Anwar ud-Din Khan Anwar ud-Din Khan (1674?–1749), whom Asaf Jah, the Mughal subahdar of the Deccan and first nizam of Hyderabad, appointed nawab (deputy) of his subordinate ...