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Henry Beaufort (1375?–1447) stone effigy © English Heritage. NMR

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Beaufort, Henry [called the Cardinal of England] (1375?–1447), bishop of Winchester and cardinal, was the second of four illegitimate children of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (1340–1399), and Katherine Swynford (1350?–1403), daughter of the Hainaulter Sir Payn Roelt, who was governess to the duke's children [...

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Blois, Henry de (c. 1096–1171), bishop of Winchester, was the fourth and youngest son of Étienne, count of Blois, and Adela, daughter of William I.

The dates of birth of all the children of ...

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Henry de Blois (c. 1096–1171) seal [obverse] The British Library

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Cormac mac Cuilennáin (d. 908), king of Munster and bishop, belonged to one of the lesser branches of the Éoganacht and his assumption of the kingship of Munster seems likely to have been a compromise arrangement (Byrne, 214, 292). It is likely that his marriage to ...

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Cumin [Comyn], John (d. 1212), archbishop of Dublin and royal servant, may have come from a minor Somerset family. Certainly it is in connection with this county that his name first appears in the official records: in 1158 and 1159 John Cumin was pardoned debts in ...

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Farnham, Nicholas of (d. 1257), royal doctor and bishop of Durham, was a native of the south of England, probably of Farnham in Surrey. It is likely that he was born in the reign of Henry II, and before 1200 had started his academic career at ...

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Geoffrey (d. 1093), bishop of Coutances and magnate, belonged to the energetic and warlike baronage of western Normandy who did so much to restore the Norman church after the viking raids and civil wars of the tenth and early eleventh centuries, and were among the most prominent counsellors and supporters of ...

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Geoffrey (1151?–1212), archbishop of York, was the illegitimate son of Henry II. He was probably named after his paternal grandfather, Geoffrey of Anjou (d. 1151).

Geoffrey's date of birth is suggested by indirect evidence. ...

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Geoffrey (1151?–1212) seal Chapter of Durham Cathedral

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Henry Benedict [Henry Benedict Stuart; styled Henry; known as Cardinal York] (1725–1807), cardinal and Jacobite claimant to the English, Scottish, and Irish thrones, was born Henry Benedict Thomas Edward Maria Clement Francis Xavier in the Palazzo Muti in Rome on 6 March 1725, and baptized there some hours later by ...

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Henry Benedict (1725–1807) by Louis-Gabriel Blanchet, 1748 private collection

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Odo, earl of Kent (d. 1097), bishop of Bayeux and magnate, was the son of Herluin de Conteville (d. c.1066), a Norman magnate of vicomte status who held lands around Grestain to the south of the Seine estuary, and of Herleva (...

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Odo, earl of Kent (d. 1097) embroidery (Bayeux Tapestry) [seated, third from right] by special permission of the City of Bayeux

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Scheves, William (b. in or before 1440, d. 1497), courtier and archbishop of St Andrews, may have been the son of John Scheves, clerk register and official of St Andrews during the reign of James II. Probably born shortly before 1440, he was a determinant in the faculty of arts at the ...

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Stewart, Alexander (c. 1493–1513), administrator and archbishop-designate of St Andrews, was the illegitimate son of James IV, king of Scots (1473–1513), and Marion Boyd. His mother, with whom James IV had a liaison between 1492 and 1494, was the daughter of Archibald Boyd...

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Stewart, James, duke of Ross (1476–1504), archbishop-designate of St Andrews, was the second son of James III, king of Scots, and his wife, Margaret of Denmark. Born early in 1476, James was immediately created marquess of Ormond, and along with his elder brother, the future ...

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Wimund (fl. c. 1130–c. 1150), bishop of the Isles and pretender, is unquestionably one of the most enigmatic figures of twelfth-century Scottish history. His story is related in its fullest form by the English chronicler William of Newburgh, who claims to have spoken personally with him. According to ...

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Winchcombe, Tideman [Robert Tydman] (d. 1401), courtier and bishop of Worcester, is alleged to have become a detested intimate of Richard II in that king's final years. However, his personality and influence lie hidden behind the sketchiest of recorded careers. Even his name poses problems. The ...

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Wolsey, Thomas (1470/71–1530), royal minister, archbishop of York, and cardinal, was the son of Robert Wulcy or Wolsey of Ipswich (d. 1496) and his wife, Joan Daundy (d. 1509). Wolsey's father ran a tavern in the parish of St Mary at the Elms, Ipswich...