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Bhave, Vinoba (1895–1982), spiritual leader in India, was born Vinayak Narhari Bhave on 11 September 1895, the eldest of the five children (four brothers, one sister) of a Maharashtrian Brahman family in the village of Gagoda, Kolaba district, Bombay. His father, Narhari Shambhurao Bhave...

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Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand [known as Mahatma Gandhi] (1869–1948), political leader and religious and social reformer, was born in Porbandar, Kathiawar, western India, on 2 October 1869, to Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi and his fourth wife, Putlibai: he was the youngest of the one daughter and three sons of the marriage....

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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi [Mahatma Gandhi] (1869–1948) by Margaret Bourke-White, 1946 Köln, Museum Ludwig / Rheinisches Bildarchiv Köln

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Ghose, Aurobindo [known as Sri Aurobindo] (1872–1950), politician and spiritual leader in India, was born at 14 South Circular Road, Calcutta, on 15 August 1872, the third son of Krishna Dhan Ghose (1844–1892/3), a civil medical officer, and Swarnalata Bose or Basu...

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Krishnamurti, Jiddu (1895–1986), religious teacher, was born on 11 May 1895 at Madanapalle, between Madras and Bangalore, the eighth son of Narianiah, a Telugu-speaking Brahman employed by the British as a rent-collector, and his wife and cousin, Jiddu Sanjeevama (d. 1905). When compulsorily retired, ...

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Noble, Margaret Elizabeth [known as Sister Nivedita] (1867–1911), writer on Hindu culture and supporter of Indian nationalism, was born on 28 October 1867, at 23 Scotch Street, Dungannon, co. Tyrone, the eldest of the three surviving children of Samuel Richmond Noble (...

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Ramakrishna Paramahansa (1836–1886), Hindu religious leader, was born Gadadhar Chatterji on 18 February 1836, in the village of Kamarpukur, located in the Hooghly district of Bengal. His father, Kshudiram, and mother, Chandramani, were orthodox Brahmans, probably Vaishnavite sectarians. His father died in 1843, when ...

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Roy, Rammohun (1772?–1833), political and religious thinker, was born in Radhanagar, Burdwan district, Bengal, the youngest of three children of Ramkanta Roy (d. 1803), a zamindar (landholder), and his second wife, Tarini Devi. He had an elder sister, an elder brother, ...

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Keshub Chunder Sen (1838–1884) by London Stereoscopic Co. © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Sen, Keshub Chunder (1838–1884), religious reformer, second son of Pyarimohan (d. 1848/9) and Saradasundari (née Das) Sen, was born in Calcutta on 19 November 1838. His grandfather, Ramkamal Sen, diwan of both the Bengal Bank and the mint at Calcutta...

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Vivekananda (1863–1902) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Vivekananda [known as Swami Vivekananda; formerly Narendranath Datta] (1863–1902), Hindu religious leader, was born on 12 January 1863 in Calcutta and named Narendranath Datta. His family were Kayasthas, a writer caste traditionally employed in government service. His father, Vishwanath Datta (...