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Mehmet Ali (c. 1769–1849), Ottoman viceroy and founder of the Egyptian royal family, was born in the Macedonian port of Kavalla, though the actual date of his birth has been obscured. Mehmet Ali himself often gave the date as 1769, the year in which both ...

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Nuri al-Said (1888–1958), army officer and prime minister of Iraq, was born in December 1888 in Baghdad, the only son (there were also four daughters) of Said Taha (d. 1904), a minor official in Baghdad's Ottoman government, and his wife, Fatima. The family lived modestly in the northern part of the city, with fellow Arabs (rather than Turks) as neighbours. As a ...

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'Urabi ['Arabi], Ahmad Muhammad [Aḣmad Muḣammad 'Urabī; known as Arabi Pasha] (1841–1911), army officer and politician in Egypt, was born on 31 March 1841 (7 Safar 1257 according to the Islamic calendar) in the village of Huriyyah Razna, near the delta town of ...

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Ahmad Muhammad 'Urabi (1841–1911) by unknown engraver, pubd 1882 (after N. Fettel & Co.) © National Portrait Gallery, London