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Adler, Jakub [Jankel] (1895–1949), painter, was born on 26 July 1895 in Tuszyn, near Łódź, Poland, the eighth of the twelve children of Eliasz Adler, a timber and coal dealer, and his wife, Hana Laja, née Fiter. Adler grew up in Łódź in the world of Hasidic Jewry, which had a lasting influence on his subject matter. After training as a goldsmith in ...

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David Garshen Bomberg (1890–1957) self-portrait, 1931 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bomberg, David Garshen (1890–1957), painter, was born at 18 Florence Street, Birmingham, on 5 December 1890, the fifth of the eleven children of Abraham Bomberg (1867/8–1938), a Polish immigrant leather-worker, and his wife, Rebecca, née Klan (1863/4–1912), whose family kept an inn and reared horses. In 1895 the family moved to ...

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Fisher, Sandra Maureen (1947–1994), painter, was born on 6 May 1947 in New York, the elder of two daughters of Gene Sapiro Fisher (b. 1918), builder, and his wife, Ethel Blankfield Kott (b. 1925), painter. She was raised in Florida and ...

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Gertler, Mark (1891–1939), painter, was born on 9 December 1891 at 16 Gun Street, Spitalfields, London, the youngest of the five children of Louis Gertler (c.1858–1917), master furrier, and his wife, Kate (Golda) Berenbaum (c.1862–1932). In 1893 the family returned to their native ...

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Mark Gertler (1891–1939) self-portrait, 1920 by permission of Luke Gertler / Arts Council Collection, Hayward Gallery, London

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Hamermesh, Mira (1923–2012), painter and documentary film-maker, was born Mirjam Hamermesz in Łódź, Poland, on 15 July 1923, the third and youngest child of Josef Meir Hamermesz, manufacturer, and his wife, Fajga, née Lerer. Her brother, Mordechai, was born in 1918, and her sister, ...

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Kitaj, Ronald Brooks [Ron] (1932–2007), painter and essayist, was born Ronald Brooks Benway on 29 October 1932, in Chagrin Falls, near Cleveland, Ohio, the son of Sigmund Benway and his wife, Jeanne, née Brooks (d. 1995), a steel mill worker and teacher. His father was born in ...

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Ronald Brooks Kitaj (1932–2007) self-portrait, 1993–4 © estate of R. B. Kitaj / National Portrait Gallery, London

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Kramer, Jacob (1892–1962), painter and graphic artist, was born on 26 December 1892 in Klintsy, in the province of Chernigov in Ukraine, the only son of Max (Meir) Kramer (d. 1915), a court painter who worked in a naturalistic style and who had studied under ...