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Ashworth, Edmund (1800–1881), cotton manufacturer and free-trade activist, was born on 17 November 1800 at Birtenshaw, Turton, near Bolton, the fifth of the eleven children of John Ashworth (1772–1855), farmer, land agent, and cotton spinner, and his wife, Isabel Thomasson (1772–1852). Edmund was a younger brother of ...

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See Bindon, Francis

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Brewster, Sir Francis (d. 1704/5), merchant and writer on trade, was born to unknown parents, possibly from co. Kerry or co. Westmeath, where he later certainly owned land. He is first recorded in 1671, when he was accused of illegally exporting timber and wool to ...

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Arthur Dobbs (1689–1765) by James Macardell (after William Hoare) Ashmolean Museum, Oxford

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Dobbs, Arthur (1689–1765), colonial governor and writer on trade, was born at Girvan in Ayrshire on 2 April 1689, the son of Richard Dobbs, army officer and future high sheriff of Antrim, and his first wife, Mary (d. before 1711), daughter of ...

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Ellison, Thomas (1833–1904), historian and statistician of the cotton trade, was born in Liverpool, possibly the son of Joseph Ellison, bookkeeper. He left school at sixteen and was apprenticed to Maurice Williams (1825–1878), who had himself just begun business as a cotton broker. ...

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See Industrial spies

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Gee, Joshua (1667–1730), writer on trade and merchant, was the son of John Gee (1635–1704) of Moyvoughley, co. Westmeath. His father was a Quaker, originally from Yorkshire. Nothing is known of Joshua Gee's education. By 1694 Gee was in London, where he became a master of the ...

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Hippisley, John (bap. 1729, d. 1766), writer on trade and administrator in west Africa, was baptized on 21 June 1729 at St Andrew's, Holborn, London, the son of John Hippisley (1696–1748), an actor and theatre manager, and his partner, Mary Charley. Little is known of his early life and education. He played Tom Thumb in ...

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Hume, James Deacon (1774–1842), civil servant and free-trader, was born on 28 April 1774 at Newington, Surrey, the son of James Hume, a customs official, and his wife, Elizabeth Capps. He had four sisters. Hume was educated at Westminster School and became a customs clerk in 1791. He rose steadily to reach the grade of comptroller in 1821, with a salary of ...