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Baron, Bernhard (1850–1929), tobacco manufacturer and philanthropist, was born on 5 December 1850 in the Russian town of Brest Litovsk. His parents were both Jewish and he was probably of French descent. In 1867 he emigrated to New York, where he worked in a tobacco factory, sleeping at night in the tobacco sheds; with tobacco lent to him by one of the foremen, he started to manufacture handmade cigarettes. He then moved to ...

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Bloomsbury Circle (act. c. 1904–c. 1940), was a group of writers, artists, and thinkers who gathered in Bloomsbury and Sussex in the early decades of the twentieth century, and who exerted considerable influence in a variety of fields between the two world wars. They became publicly known as the ...

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Bowater, Sir Eric Vansittart (1895–1962), paper manufacturer and industrialist, was born in London on 16 January 1895, the third child and only son of Sir Frederick William Bowater (1867–1924), paper merchant, of London, and his wife, Alice Emily, daughter of Joseph Sharp, of ...

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Sir Eric Vansittart Bowater (1895–1962) by Wolfgang Suschitzky, 1960 © Wolfgang Suschitzky / National Portrait Gallery, London

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Caird, Sir James Key, baronet (1837–1916), jute manufacturer and benefactor, was born on 7 January 1837, the eldest son of the five children of Edward Caird (1806–1889), linen manufacturer of Dundee, and his wife, Mary, née Key (c.1806–1843). Edward Caird had founded the business of ...

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Cow, Peter Brusey (1815–1890), rubber manufacturer, was born at Deptford on 25 September 1815, the younger son of John Cow, a master boat builder at Woolwich Dockyard. In 1830, at the age of fifteen, he was apprenticed to Charles Gower Collins, a linen draper of ...

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Cowan, Charles (1801–1889), paper manufacturer and politician, born on 7 June 1801 at 12 or 14 Charlotte Street, Edinburgh (as he said in his Reminiscences), was the eldest of the eleven children of Alexander Cowan (d. 1859), owner of paper mills at ...

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Cowan, Sir John, baronet (1814–1900), paper manufacturer and political organizer, was born at 5 St John's Street, Edinburgh, on 7 May 1814, one of the eight children to reach maturity of Alexander Cowan (d. 1859), also a paper manufacturer, of Edinburgh and ...

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Sir John Cowan, baronet (1814–1900) by unknown engraver, pubd 1894 (after Thomas Fall) © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Cropper, James (1823–1900), paper manufacturer and politician, was born on 22 February 1823 in Duke Street, Liverpool, the eldest of the three surviving sons and six daughters of John Cropper (1797–1874), merchant of Liverpool, and his wife, Anne (1797–1876), daughter of John and ...