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Ambrosius Aurelianus [called Emrys Wledig] (fl. 5th cent.), military leader, successfully resisted the Anglo-Saxon advance across Britain. What little specific information can be established about him and his activities derives from chapter 25 of the De excidio Britanniae by Gildas, which was the source for ...

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Arthur (supp. fl. in or before 6th cent.), legendary warrior and supposed king of Britain, has an attested career that is entirely posthumous. From obscure beginnings in British legend, he became internationally known in the twelfth century, particularly through the success of Geoffrey of Monmouth's...

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Brennan, Michael [Mícheál] (1896–1986), Irish revolutionary and general, was born on 2 February 1896 at Gortgarraun, near Meelick, co. Clare, the youngest of three rebel sons of Patrick Brennan, a tenant farmer (1865–1901), and Mary (1862/3–1939), daughter of Michael Clancy from Rathurd, co. Limerick...

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Caesar [Gaius Julius Caesar] (100–44 bc), politician, author, and military commander, was born on 13 Quinctilis (July) 100 bc, probably at Rome, the son of Gaius Julius Caesar, a patrician of old but recently undistinguished family whose brother-in-law was Gaius Marius, and Aurelia...

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Calgacus [Galgacus] (fl. c. ad 83/4), chieftain in Caledonia, was the British war leader whom Tacitus represents as exhorting the confederate host which opposed a Roman army under Cn. Julius Agricola at the battle of 'Mons Graupius'. The site of this conflict, in which upwards of (reportedly) 30,000 native troops united to defend ...

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Calveley, Sir Hugh (d. 1394), military commander, was the son of David Calveley of Lea in Cheshire and his first wife, Joan.

Calveley served his military apprenticeship in the war of succession in Brittany (1341–64), in which the English supported the partisans of ...

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Clare, Richard fitz Gilbert de [called Strongbow], second earl of Pembroke [earl of Striguil] (c. 1130–1176), warrior, was the son of Gilbert fitz Gilbert (d. 6 Jan? 1148), whom King Stephen created earl of Pembroke in 1138 and to whom the sobriquet ...

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Clinton, Edward Fiennes de, first earl of Lincoln (1512–1585), military commander, was the only son and heir of Thomas Fiennes de Clinton, eighth Baron Clinton and Saye (c.1490–1517), and his wife, Joan, illegitimate daughter of Sir Edward Poynings (1459–1521). Thomas, whose seat was at ...

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Edward Fiennes de Clinton, first earl of Lincoln (1512–1585) by unknown artist, 1584 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Courcy [Courci], John de (d. 1219?), conqueror of Ulster, styled by contemporaries prince of Ulster, is of uncertain parentage. He was without doubt a member of the well-known family who took their name from Courcy-sur-Dives in Calvados and who were lords of Stoke Courcy (Stogursey)...