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Alexander Gordon

revised by M. J. Mercer

Addington, Stephen (1729–1796), Independent minister and tutor, was born at Northampton on 9 June 1729, the seventh son of Samuel Addington, who was either a hatter or a glover, and his wife, Mary. He was a student at Philip Doddridge's academy at Northampton...

Article

Aikin, John (1713–1780), tutor and theological scholar, was born on 28 December 1713 in London. His father, John Aikin (1664–1756), a linen draper from Kirkcudbright, Scotland, had settled there some time previously; his mother, Anne Bentall, is described as the daughter of a ...

Article

Ascham, Roger (1514/15–1568), author and royal tutor, was born at Kirby Wiske, near Northallerton in the North Riding of Yorkshire, the third of the four sons of John Ascham (d. 1544), steward to Henry, seventh Lord Scrope of Bolton, and his wife, ...

Article

Alexander Gordon

revised by W. N. Terry

Ashworth, Caleb (d. 1775), dissenting minister and tutor, was born at Clough Fold, near Rawtenstall, Rossendale, Lancashire, one of three sons of Richard Ashworth (1667–1751), a Particular Baptist lay preacher. His date of birth is uncertain: in his funeral address in 1775 Samuel Palmer...

Article

Belmaine, Jean (fl. 1546–1559), royal tutor, is of uncertain origins. He probably came to England from France in the wake of the French persecutions of religious evangelicals after the edict of Fontainebleau (1540). He certainly had Calvinist sympathies: his corrections to Edward VI's...

Article

Bennett, Sarah (1797–1861), governess, was born at Spalding, Lincolnshire, on 4 March 1797; her mother was the daughter of a tradesman, her father an architect and builder. Her father died aged thirty-eight, leaving a family of eight children and a ruined business. Sarah...

Article

Thompson Cooper

revised by Stephen Wright

Bird, Richard (d. 1609), Church of England clergyman and private tutor, matriculated as a sizar from Trinity College, Cambridge, in February 1565, and was elected a scholar in the same year. He graduated BA early in 1569, became a fellow in 1570, and proceeded MA in 1572....

Article

Bolton, Sir George (fl. 1790–1799), tutor and inventor of gun-locks, of unknown parentage and early life, was schooled in military tactics and mathematics preparatory to a career in the army, but was instead appointed instructor to the royal princesses in writing, geography, and arithmetic. Being of independent means, he indulged his interest in firearms by seeking to improve the musket gun-lock, which in both military and sporting firearms was so defective that accidents were frequently caused by guns going off at half-cock in the heat of battle or when forging through dense vegetation. The self-acting and detached bolting lock that he designed was constructed by mathematical instrument makers (whom he found more obedient to his orders than the gun makers), and patented in 1795 (no. 2041). The ...

Article

Gordon Goodwin

revised by J. A. Marchand

Bowman, Walter (1699–1782), tutor and antiquary, was the son of Walter Bowman of Logie in Fife. He travelled extensively in Italy, both on his own and with successive pupils. He was tutor to Samuel Rolle on the latter's grand tour of 1724–5, and was enrolled at ...

Article

Burney, Frances (1776–1828), governess and poet, was born in London in January 1776, the fourth child and second daughter of cousins Esther (Hetty) Burney (1749–1832) and Charles Rousseau Burney (1747–1819), and niece of the novelist and diarist Frances Burney, Madame D'Arblay. Her parents were both talented musicians: ...