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Benmohel, Nathan Lazarus (1803–1869), Hebrew and German scholar, was born in Hamburg, Germany, son of Rabbi Elieza Lazi (1741–1841), presiding judge, or dayan, of Posen, and the united congregations of Altona, Hamburg, and Wandsbeck. His mother was the daughter of Rabbi Todros Munk...

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Bernays, Adolphus (1794–1864), German scholar, was born Aaron Jacob Bernays on 18 May 1794 in Mainz, Germany, the fifth of eight children of a well-to-do Jewish innkeeper, Jacob Bernays (1747–1817), and his wife, Martha, née Welsch (b. 1761). The wider Bernays family included many notable figures, among them his brother ...

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Bithell, Jethro (1878–1962), German scholar, was born on 29 January 1878 at Birchall Farm, Hindley, near Wigan, Lancashire, the son of John Bithell, a collier, and his wife, Harriet, née Cubbin. He was educated at Wigan Mining School and was originally intended for a career in business. However, he attended ...

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Boyd, James [Jimmy] (1891–1970), German scholar, was born on 27 December 1891 in Gardiner's Close, Lockerbie, Dumfries, the only son of Peter Boyd, master blacksmith, and his wife, Mary, née Tennant. His schooling was at Lockerbie Academy and in 1909 he was awarded an open scholarship to the ...

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Branscombe, Peter John (1929–2008), German scholar and musicologist, was born on 7 December 1929 at 60 High Street, Sittingbourne, Kent, the elder son of John Reginald Branscombe (1891–1965), bank manager, and his wife, Winifred Mary, née Jones (1901–1994). His schooling at Dulwich College...

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Breul, Karl Hermann (1860–1932), German scholar, was born in Hanover on 10 August 1860, the son of Ernst Breul, merchant, and his wife, Agnes. He attended the Lyceum II there, proceeding to the study of modern languages at the University of Tübingen. After military service he transferred to the ...

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Bruford, Walter Horace (1894–1988), German and Russian scholar, was born at 4 Alexandra Street, Broughton, Salford, on 14 July 1894, the son of Francis James Bruford, drainage inspector, and his wife, Annie, née Fox. He attended Manchester grammar school, where he received a thorough grounding in both the classics and modern languages. He then went with a scholarship to ...

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Butler, Eliza Marian [Elsie] (1885–1959), German scholar, was born on 29 December 1885 in Bardsea, Lancashire, third daughter and third of the seven children of Theobald Fitzwalter Butler (1845–1914), a coal owner and iron manufacturer at Barrow in Furness, and his wife, Catherine Elizabeth Barraclough (...

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Eliza Marian Butler (1885–1959) by Elliott & Fry © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Carlyle, Thomas (1803–1855), apostle of the Catholic Apostolic church and German scholar, was born on 17 July 1803 at King's Grange, near Castle Douglas, Kirkcudbrightshire, of an old Dumfriesshire family. His father, William Carlyle (1759–1824), a lawyer, married in 1802 Margaret Heriot, widow of ...