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Benmohel, Nathan Lazarus (1803–1869), Hebrew and German scholar, was born in Hamburg, Germany, son of Rabbi Elieza Lazi (1741–1841), presiding judge, or dayan, of Posen, and the united congregations of Altona, Hamburg, and Wandsbeck. His mother was the daughter of Rabbi Todros Munk...

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Bernays, Adolphus (1794–1864), German scholar, was born Aaron Jacob Bernays on 18 May 1794 in Mainz, Germany, the fifth of eight children of a well-to-do Jewish innkeeper, Jacob Bernays (1747–1817), and his wife, Martha, née Welsch (b. 1761). The wider Bernays family included many notable figures, among them his brother ...

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Carlyle, Thomas (1803–1855), apostle of the Catholic Apostolic church and German scholar, was born on 17 July 1803 at King's Grange, near Castle Douglas, Kirkcudbrightshire, of an old Dumfriesshire family. His father, William Carlyle (1759–1824), a lawyer, married in 1802 Margaret Heriot, widow of ...

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Closs, August Max (1898–1990), German scholar, was born on 9 August 1898 at Neumarkt, Styria, Austria, the son of Alois Closs (1852–1909), an official at the local law court, and his wife, Rosa, née Halm (1872–1960). After schooling at the Fürstbischöfliches Gymnasium, Graz...

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Deneke, Helena Clara (1878–1973), German scholar, was born on 19 May 1878 at 89 Denmark Hill, London, the oldest child and elder of the two surviving daughters of Philip Maurice Deneke (1842–1925), a wealthy London merchant banker born in Germany, and his wife, ...

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Helena Clara Deneke (1878–1973) by Hubert Andrew Freeth [left, with her sister, Margaret Deneke] private collection

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Fiedler, Hermann Georg (1862–1945), German scholar, was born on 28 April 1862 at Zittau, Saxony, the second of three children of August Fiedler (1837–1912) and Minna Grossmann (1842–1894). His father was Musikdirektor at Zittau and his elder brother (August) Max Fiedler (1859–1939) became one of the most renowned conductors of his time. His sister ...

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Forster, Leonard Wilson (1913–1997), German scholar, was born in London on 30 March 1913, the son of Edward James Forster, businessman, and his wife, Linda Charlotte, née Rogers. After Marlborough College, he read modern and medieval languages at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, from 1931 to 1934, little imagining when he attended the funeral of the first Schröder professor of German, ...

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Hatto, Arthur Thomas (1910–2010), scholar of German literature and of archaic poetry, was born at 299a Stanstead Road, Forest Hill, London, on 11 February 1910, the only child of Thomas Hatto (1888–1963), solicitor's clerk, and his wife, Alice Maud, née Walters (1885–1976), a nurse. At the age of thirteen he won a scholarship to ...

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Jolles, Charlotte Alice Berta Eva (1909–2003), German scholar, was born on 5 October 1909 in Berlin, Germany, the daughter of Leopold Jolles (d. 1938), engineer, and his wife, Katharina, née Weihkopf. She attended school there from 1916 to 1929 and university from 1929 to 1936, studying German, history, philosophy, and educational theory. She first pursued her enduring interest in the development of democratic ideas in ...