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Billings, Joseph (1758–1806), explorer and hydrographer in Russia, was born in 1758 at Turnham Green, Middlesex, according to ship musters; parish church registers confirm the birth of Joseph, son of Thomas and Mary Billing, on 6 September 1758. Billings's signed Russian service record, however, gives 1761 as the year of his birth. Other sources indicate that ...

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Borough, Stephen (1525–1584), explorer and naval administrator, was born on 25 September 1525 at Borough House, Northam Burrows, Northam, Devon, the elder son of Walter Borough (1494–1548) and Mary Dough; his younger brother was William Borough (d. 1598).

With his uncle, John Borough (d. 1570)...

Article

Borough, William (bap. 1536, d. 1598), explorer and naval administrator, was born at Borough House, Northam Burrows, Northam, Devon, to Walter Borough (1494–1548) and Mary (née Dough) and baptized on 18 August 1536 in St Mary's, Northam. His childhood experiences included voyages made with his elder brother, ...

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Cabot, Sebastian (c. 1481/2–1557), explorer and cartographer, was the son of the explorer and navigator John Cabot (c. 1451–1498) and his wife, Mattea.

Neither the place nor the date of Cabot's birth is entirely certain. His father appears to have been of Genoese origin, but was a citizen of ...

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Carruthers, (Alexander) Douglas Mitchell (1882–1962), explorer and naturalist, was born in London on 4 October 1882, the eldest son of William Mitchell-Carruthers (1853–1931), who took orders in 1886, and his wife, Antonia, daughter of Atkinson Alexander Holden, who had been rector of Hawton, Newark-on-Trent...

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Chancellor, Richard (d. 1556), explorer, is of unknown origins; the scholar Clement Adams, who set down his Russian observations, claimed that he was brought up in the household of Sir Henry Sidney. In 1550 Chancellor sailed as an apprentice pilot under Roger Bodenham...

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Doughty, Charles Montagu (1843–1926), explorer, travel writer, and poet, was born on 19 August 1843 at Theberton Hall, Leiston, Suffolk, the younger of two sons of the Revd Charles Montagu Doughty (1798–1850), landowner, and his wife, Frederica (d. 1843), daughter of the ...

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Charles Montagu Doughty (1843–1926) by Eric Kennington, 1921 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

E. I. Carlyle

revised by S. Searight

Elton, John (d. 1751), merchant and adventurer, is of unknown origins. He arrived in Russia in 1732 to present to the Russian government a memorandum for finding a northern sea passage to Japan. In 1735 the Russian government sent him with an official expedition, with ...

Article

R. N. Rudmose Brown

revised by Robin A. Butlin

Freshfield, Douglas William (1845–1934), geographer and mountain explorer, was born at Hampstead, Middlesex, on 27 April 1845, the only son of Henry Ray Freshfield (1814–1895) [see under Freshfield family], solicitor to the Bank of England, and his wife, Jane Quentin, the daughter of ...