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Adair, John (1660–1718), geographer and cartographer, was born on 2 September 1660 in Leith, Scotland. Nothing is known of his parents or his early education. The first firm reference to Adair dates from May 1681, when he was granted a licence by the ...

Article

See Bartholomew family

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Charles Tilstone Beke (1800–1874) by Maull & Fox © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Beke, Charles Tilstone (1800–1874), traveller and geographer, was born on 10 October 1800 at Stepney, London, the son of James Beke. The family had ancestral connections to Bekesbourne in Kent, where Beke lived in later life. He was educated at a private school in ...

Article

J. De Graaff-Hunter

revised by Yolande Hodson

Close, Sir Charles Frederick Arden- (1865–1952), surveyor and geographer, was born on 10 August 1865 at St Saviour's, Jersey, the eldest of the eleven children of Captain (later Major-General) Frederick Close (1830–1899) and his second wife, Lydia Ann Stevens. He was educated at a dame-school in ...

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Sir Charles Frederick Arden- Close (1865–1952) by Walter Stoneman, 1939 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

J. A. Steers

revised by Elizabeth Baigent

Debenham, Frank (1883–1965), geographer and polar scientist, was born at Bowral, New South Wales, on 26 December 1883, the second son of the Revd John Willmott Debenham, vicar of Bowral and schoolmaster, and his wife, Edith Cleveland. He attended the school run by his father and, after his death in 1898, by his mother, and from there went to the ...

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Frank Debenham (1883–1965) by Herbert George Ponting, 1911 © Popperfoto

Article

Earl, George Samuel Windsor (1813–1865), colonist and geographer, the son of a veteran sea captain and shipowner, Percy Earl (1771–1827), and his second wife, Elizabeth, née Sharp (1778/9–1874), was born at Hampstead, Middlesex, on 10 February 1813. His brief formal education was at the ...

Article

R. N. Rudmose Brown

revised by Robin A. Butlin

Freshfield, Douglas William (1845–1934), geographer and mountain explorer, was born at Hampstead, Middlesex, on 27 April 1845, the only son of Henry Ray Freshfield (1814–1895) [see under Freshfield family], solicitor to the Bank of England, and his wife, Jane Quentin, the daughter of ...