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Clifford, William Kingdon (1845–1879), mathematician and philosopher of science, was born on 4 May 1845 at Exeter, the eldest son of William Clifford, a justice of the peace who died in 1878. His mother, whose maiden name was Kingdon, died not long after he was born. ...

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William Kingdon Clifford (1845–1879) by John Collier, 1878 Estate of the Artist / © Royal Society

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William Stanley Jevons (1835–1882) by Maull & Co., 1870s © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Jevons, William Stanley (1835–1882), economist and philosopher of science, was born on 1 September 1835 at 14 Alfred Street, Liverpool, the ninth of the eleven children (of whom only six survived beyond infancy) of Thomas Jevons (1791–1855), iron merchant and inventor, and his wife, ...

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Lakatos, Imre [formerly Imré Lipsitz] (1922–1974), philosopher of mathematics and of science, was born Imré Lipsitz on 9 November 1922 in Debrecen, Hungary, the only child of Jacob Márton Lipsitz, a wine merchant, and Márgit Herczfeld, both Hungarian Jews. His father left the family home shortly after ...

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Whewell, William (1794–1866), college head and writer on the history and philosophy of science, was born on 24 May 1794 at Brock Street, Lancaster, the eldest of seven children of John Whewell, master carpenter, and his wife, Elizabeth Bennison.

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William Whewell (1794–1866) by J. Rylands © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Whitrow, Gerald James (1912–2000), mathematician, historian, and philosopher of science, was born on 9 June 1912 at Kimmeridge, Dorset, the eldest son of George William Whitrow (1875–1953), a farmer, and his wife, Emily, formerly Watkins (1872–1955). In 1916 the family moved to Clapham, London...

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Woodger, Joseph Henry (1894–1981), philosopher of biology and theoretical biologist, was born on 2 May 1894 at Euston Road, Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, the son of Nathan Lamble Woodger, a fish merchant, and his wife, Julia, née Thorne. He was educated at Felsted School, Essex...

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Ziman, John Michael (1925–2005), physicist and philosopher of science, was born into a cultured Jewish family at 21 Rustat Road, Cambridge, on 16 May 1925, the elder son and eldest of three children of Solomon Netheim Ziman and his wife, Nellie Frances, née...