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Allin, John (1623–1683), nonconformist minister and alchemist, was born on 13 October 1623 in Wrentham, Suffolk, the son of the Revd John Allen, or Allin (c. 1596–1671), and his first wife, Margaret, née Morse (c.1598–1653). At the time of Allin's birth his father was the curate in ...

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Anderson, Adam (1780–1846), natural philosopher and engineer, was born on 29 June 1780 in Tulliallan parish, Perthshire, third son in the family of four sons and two daughters of Andrew Anderson, shipmaster of Kincardine-on-Forth, and his second wife, Anne Moon, of Errol. In later life he shortened his age, claiming to be born in 1783; this was also the date recorded on the gravestone erected by his admirers. Educated in arts and, briefly, divinity, at ...

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Anderson, John (1726–1796), natural philosopher, was born on 26 September 1726 in the parish of Rosneath, Dunbartonshire, the eldest child of the three sons and one daughter of James Anderson (d. 1734?), the minister of the parish, and his wife, Margaret Turner (...

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John Anderson (1726–1796) after James Tassie, c. 1789 Scottish National Portrait Gallery

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Aspall, Geoffrey of (d. 1287), administrator and natural philosopher, took his name from Aspall in Suffolk; his father was a landowner in that county who married a member of the wealthy London family of Bukerel, and he had at least three brothers. Information concerning the dates and place of ...

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Henry Baker (1698–1774) by William Nutter, pubd 1812 (after W. B. Thomson) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Baker, Henry (1698–1774), natural philosopher and teacher of deaf people, was born on 8 May 1698 in Quality Court, Chancery Lane, London, to William Baker, a clerk in chancery, and his wife, Mary, the daughter of Aaron Pengry, comptroller of the petty bag office. His father died when he was very young, and he himself recorded that he was brought up by his paternal grandmother. At the age of fifteen he was apprenticed to a bookseller of ...

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Barlow, William (1544–1625), Church of England clergyman and natural philosopher, was one of two sons and five daughters born to William Barlow (d. 1568), then bishop of St David's, and his wife, Agatha Wellesbourne (d. 1593), a former nun. His father's elder brother ...

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Baxter, Andrew (1686/7–1750), natural philosopher and metaphysician, was born at Old Aberdeen, the son of a merchant and his wife, Elizabeth Frazer. Baxter studied at King's College, Aberdeen, from 1699 to 1703, and in 1719 was employed by the Hays of Drumelzier, whom he subsequently served in various capacities. While residing with the ...

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Beale, John (bap. 1608, d. 1683), Church of England clergyman and writer on agriculture and natural philosophy, was baptized at Yarkhill, Herefordshire, on 17 April 1608, the sixth and youngest son of Thomas Beale (1575–1620), a lawyer and prominent gentleman farmer, and his wife, ...