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Abbot, John (1751–1840?), naturalist and artist, born at Bennet Street, St James, London, on 1 June 1751, was the second of the five children of John Abbot (d. 1787), a prosperous attorney, and his wife, Ann Clousinger. As a youth, Abbot developed a passion for entomology and for drawing, an enthusiasm that was supported by his father, who retained ...


B. D. Jackson

revised by P. E. Kell

Abel, Clarke (1789–1826), naturalist and surgeon, was born on 5 September 1789, the son of Matthias Abel. After schooling at Merchant Taylors', he was educated for the medical profession and served as a surgeon in Norwich. He is sometimes styled MD but it is not clear if he qualified as such. He accompanied ...


Peter Medawar

revised by L. Wolpert

Abercrombie, Michael (1912–1979), biologist, was born at The Gallows, Ryton, Dymock, Gloucestershire, on 14 August 1912, the third son in the family of three sons and a daughter of Lascelles Abercrombie (1881–1938), poet and critic, and his wife, Catherine (1881–1968), daughter of Owen Gwatkin...


Abraham, Sir Edward Penley (1913–1999), biochemist, was born at 47 Southview Road, Southampton, on 10 June 1913, the son of Albert Penley Abraham, a customs and excise officer, and his wife, Mary Abraham, née Hearne. Educated at King Edward VI School, Southampton, and ...


Sir Edward Penley Abraham (1913–1999) by Wolfgang Suschitzky, 1944 [Oxford scientists [left to right]: , Wilson Baker, and Sir Ernst Chain (1906-1979), Sir Robert Robinson (1886–1975)] © Wolfgang Suschitzky / National Portrait Gallery, London


Adams, Andrew Leith (1827–1882), army surgeon and naturalist, born on 21 March 1827, was the son of Francis Adams (1796–1861), surgeon, and his wife, Elspeth Shaw (d. 1845). Appointed army surgeon in 1848, Adams joined the 22nd (Cheshire) regiment and was posted to ...


Albin, Eleazar (d. 1742?), naturalist and watercolour painter, may have been born somewhere in the German states to a family named Weiss. Nothing is known of his early life, although he later claimed, in his Natural History of Birds (1731–8), to have been 'at ...


A. F. Pollard

revised by Peter Osborne

Allman, George James (1812–1898), naturalist, was born in February 1812 in Cork, the eldest son of James Allman of Bandon, co. Cork. He was educated at the Belfast Academical Institution and at Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated BA in 1839 and MB in 1843. Although he subsequently graduated MD in 1847, having become a fellow of the ...


Anderson, William (c. 1748–1778), surgeon and naturalist, was born in Scotland, probably in the area of North Berwick, Haddingtonshire. Nothing is known of his immediate family other than the existence of two sisters, Beth and Rabinah. He was educated at Edinburgh University, enrolling as an anatomy student for the year 1762–3. At his examination for the navy on 1 December 1768 he qualified as surgeon's first mate and on 1 November 1770 he was advanced to surgeon of a first-rate ship, subsequently serving in the ...


James Britten

revised by D. E. Allen

Andrews, William (bap. 1802, d. 1880), naturalist, was baptized at St Pancras, Chichester, on 8 January 1802, the second child of William Andrews, a printer in that city, and his wife, Jane, née Crawford. A printer of that surname, in business at the same address by 1755 and on record as having come from ...