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Abdullah ibn Hussein ['Abd Allāh ibn al-Ḥusayn] (1882–1951), emir of Transjordan and founder of the Hashemite kingdom of Jordan, was born in February 1882 in Mecca in the Ottoman province of Hejaz. He was the second of three sons of Hussein ibn Ali...

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Amanullah Khan (1892–1960), amir of Afghanistan, was born on 2 June 1892 at Paghman, Kabul. He was the third son of Amir (King) Habibullah (d. 1919), but his mother, Ulya Hazrat, was the ‘first queen’. She used her considerable skill and intelligence to prepare him for the throne. However, ...

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Hussein ibn Ali (1853–1931), emir of Mecca and founder of the Hashemite kingdom of the Hejaz, was born in Constantinople in 1853, the first son of Ali ibn Muhammad (d. 1861) and Salha. His parents were descendants of the prophet Muhammad, as denoted by their titles sherif and sherifa respectively, and members of the ...