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Charles Edward [Charles Edward Stuart; styled Charles; known as the Young Pretender, Bonnie Prince Charlie] (1720–1788), Jacobite claimant to the English, Scottish, and Irish thrones, was born Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Silvester Severino Maria at the Palazzo Muti, Rome, on 31 December 1720 ns, the eldest son of ...

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Charles Edward (1720–1788) by Louis Gabriel Blanchet, 1738 © National Portrait Gallery

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Clementina (1702–1735) by Francesco Trevisani Museo del Prado, Madrid; photograph © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Clementina [Maria Clementina Stuart, née Sobieska] (1702–1735), consort of James Francis Edward, Jacobite claimant to the English, Scottish, and Irish thrones, was born Maria Clementina on 18 July 1702. She was the third and youngest daughter of James Sobieski, prince of Poland, and his wife, ...

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Henry Benedict [Henry Benedict Stuart; styled Henry; known as Cardinal York] (1725–1807), cardinal and Jacobite claimant to the English, Scottish, and Irish thrones, was born Henry Benedict Thomas Edward Maria Clement Francis Xavier in the Palazzo Muti in Rome on 6 March 1725, and baptized there some hours later by ...

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Henry Benedict (1725–1807) by Louis-Gabriel Blanchet, 1748 private collection

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James Francis Edward (1688–1766) by Louis-Gabriel Blanchet, 1741 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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James Francis Edward [James Francis Edward Stuart; styled James; known as Chevalier de St George, the Pretender, the Old Pretender] (1688–1766), Jacobite claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was born at St James's Palace, Westminster, on 10 June 1688, the only surviving son of ...

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Louisa [Louisa Stuart], styled countess of Albany (1752–1824) by François-Xavier Fabre, 1793 Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy / Bridgeman Art Library

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Louisa [Louisa Stuart], styled countess of Albany (1752–1824), consort of Charles Edward, Jacobite claimant to the English, Scottish, and Irish thrones, was born Louisa Maximiliana Carolina Emmanuel in Mons, Hainault, in the Austrian Netherlands. She was the first child of Prince Gustav Adolf of Stolberg-Gedern (...