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Alfred Ætheling (d. 1036/7), prince, was the second son of Æthelred II (c. 966x8–1016) and his second consort, Emma of Normandy (d. 1052). He was the brother of Edward the Confessor and they had a sister, Godgifu; he was also half-brother to Harthacnut...

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Arthur, duke of Brittany (1187–1203), prince, was the posthumous son of Geoffrey, duke of Brittany (d. 1186), fourth son of Henry II, and Constance, duchess of Brittany (c. 1161–1201). He was born at Nantes on Easter day (29 March) 1187. Despite his grandfather's wish that he should be called ...

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Dudley, Lord Guildford (c. 1535–1554), husband of Lady Jane Grey, was the fourth surviving son of John Dudley, duke of Northumberland (1504–1553), and his wife, Lady Jane Guildford (d. 1555), the daughter of Sir Edward Guildford of Halden and Hemsted, Kent. Northumberland...

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Edgar Ætheling (b. 1052?, d. in or after 1125), prince, was the son of Edward Ætheling (d. 1057) and grandson of Edmund II; in 1066 he was the only candidate for the throne who could trace his descent from an English king. Subsequently, he was involved in failed rebellions against ...

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Edward, styled earl of Warwick (1475–1499), potential claimant to the English throne, was the first and only surviving son of George, duke of Clarence (1449–1478), and Isabel, daughter and coheir of Richard Neville, earl of Salisbury and Warwick. He was born on 21 or 25 February 1475 at ...

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Eustace, count of Boulogne (c. 1129–1153), claimant to the English throne, was the eldest son of King Stephen (c. 1092–1154) and Matilda of Boulogne (c. 1103–1152). He was the brother of William (William of Blois), earl of Surrey (c. 1135–1159), and Mary (Mary of Blois), ...

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Grey [married name Dudley], Lady Jane (1537–1554), noblewoman and claimant to the English throne, was the eldest surviving child of Henry Grey, marquess of Dorset, later duke of Suffolk (1517–1554), and Frances (1517–1559), daughter of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, and Mary...

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James Francis Edward (1688–1766) by Louis-Gabriel Blanchet, 1741 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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James Francis Edward [James Francis Edward Stuart; styled James; known as Chevalier de St George, the Pretender, the Old Pretender] (1688–1766), Jacobite claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was born at St James's Palace, Westminster, on 10 June 1688, the only surviving son of ...

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Matilda (1102–1167) manuscript drawing [seated second from right] Master and Fellows of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge