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Beauclerk, Charles, first duke of St Albans (1670–1726), army officer, the illegitimate son of Charles II and Nell Gwyn, was born at his mother's house in Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, on 8 May 1670. It is said that one day when the king was with ...

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Beaufort, Edmund, first duke of Somerset (c. 1406–1455), magnate and soldier, was the younger brother of John Beaufort, duke of Somerset (1404–1444); John and Edmund were the second and third sons of John Beaufort, marquess of Dorset and of Somerset (c. 1371–1410), who was the eldest son of ...

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Beaufort, John, marquess of Dorset and marquess of Somerset (c. 1371–1410), soldier and administrator, was the first offspring of the liaison between John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (1340–1399), and Katherine Swynford (1350?–1403) [see Katherine, duchess of Lancaster]. He became a staunch supporter of ...

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Beaufort, John, duke of Somerset (1404–1444), magnate and soldier, was the second son of John Beaufort, marquess of Dorset and of Somerset (d. 1410), and Margaret Holland, daughter of Thomas Holland, earl of Kent. He succeeded to the earldom of Somerset on the death of his elder brother, ...

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Beaufort, Thomas, duke of Exeter (1377?–1426), magnate and soldier, was the youngest of the three illegitimate sons of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and Katherine Swynford [see Katherine, duchess of Lancaster]. His brothers were John Beaufort and Henry Beaufort...

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Edward [Edward of Woodstock; known as the Black Prince], prince of Wales and of Aquitaine (1330–1376), heir to the English throne and military commander, was the eldest son of Edward III (1312–1377) and Philippa of Hainault (1310x15?–1369).

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Edward, prince of Wales and of Aquitaine (1330–1376) tomb effigy by kind permission of the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury; photographer: Mrs Mary Tucker

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Fitzcharles, Charles, earl of Plymouth (c. 1657–1680), courtier and army officer, was born, probably in Bruges, in 1657, the illegitimate son of Charles II (1630–1685), and Catherine Pegge (d. 1678). His mother's liaison with the exiled king had come to an end by 1658, and he was brought up by her in the ...

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FitzRoy [formerly Palmer], George, duke of Northumberland (1665–1716), courtier and army officer, was born on 28 December 1665 at Merton College, Oxford, the third and youngest son of Charles II and Barbara Palmer, countess of Castlemaine (bap. 1640, d. 1709). For the first few years of his life he was officially the son of his mother's husband, ...

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Henry of Lancaster [Henry of Grosmont], first duke of Lancaster (c. 1310–1361), soldier and diplomat, was the son of Henry, third earl of Lancaster (c. 1280–1345), and Maud Chaworth (d. 1317×22).