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Austen, Ralph (c. 1612–1676), horticulturist and religious radical, was born into a yeoman family in Leek, Staffordshire; his mother was a cousin of Henry Ireton, the parliamentary leader, a connection Austen repeatedly stressed in his attempts to gain offices or land grants. Austen...

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Bertie, Richard (1517–1582), landowner and religious evangelical, was the eldest son of Thomas Bertie (d. 1555), of Bearsted, Kent, and his wife, a member of the Say family of Shropshire. In February 1534 he was admitted to Corpus Christi College, Oxford, aged sixteen. Having graduated BA in 1537, he became a probationary fellow of ...

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Browne, Thomas, fourth Viscount Kenmare (1726–1795), landowner and politician, was born in April 1726, probably at Killarney, co. Kerry, the second of four children of Valentine Browne, third Viscount Kenmare (1695–1736), landowner, and his first wife, Honoria Butler (d. 1730), daughter of ...

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Carleton, George (1529–1590), landowner and puritan, was the second son of John Carleton of Walton-on-Thames, Surrey, and Brightwell Baldwin, Oxfordshire, and his wife, Joyce, daughter of John Welbeck of Oxenheath, Kent. His maternal grandmother was Margaret Culpepper, an aunt of Queen Katherine Howard...

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Erskine, John, of Dun (1509–1590), landowner and religious activist, was born in the House of Dun, between Montrose and Brechin, the elder son of John Erskine of Dun (d. 1513), and of Margaret Ruthven (d. 1548), widow of Alexander Stewart, first earl of Buchan...

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Gordon, William, of Earlston (1614–1679), landowner and covenanter, born in Dalry, Kirkcudbrightshire, was the second son of Alexander Gordon of Earlston (1587–1654), justice of the peace, and Elizabeth (d. in or after 1653), daughter of John Gordon of Pennynghame. Little is known regarding his education, though he is said to have studied for the ministry and to have graduated MA. On 26 October 1648 he married ...

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Tracy, William (d. 1530), landowner and religious radical, was the son of Sir Henry Tracy (d. c.1506) of Toddington, Gloucestershire, and Alice Baldington, daughter and coheir of Thomas Baldington of Oxfordshire. He was married to Margaret or Margery Throckmorton, daughter of ...

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Wishart, Sir John, of Pittarow (d. 1585), landowner and religious activist, was the eldest son of James Wishart of Cairnbeg and succeeded his uncle, John Wishart, in the lands and barony of Pittarow, Kincardineshire, about 1525. In the mid-1530s he belonged to the connection of ...